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[PSYB64H3] - Final Exam Guide - Ultimate 107 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB64H3
Professor
Janelle Leboutillier
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
PSYB64H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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1
PSYB64 LECTURE NOTES
Introduction to Physiological Psychology
Week 1 – May 5 th
, 2015
Biological psychology: the branch of psychology that studies the biological foundation of behavior,
emotions, and mental processes.
oDraws on techniques and theories from psychology, biology, physiology, biochemistry, the
neurosciences and related fields.
Interdisciplinary study.
Histology: the study of microscopic structures and tissues.
oProvides means for observing structure, organization, and connections of individual cells.
oMicrotome machine and specialized stains:
Golgi stain: stains 1 in 700 and 1 in 1400 cells/
Uses various chemicals (e.g., dichromate)
Appears orange.
Nissl stain: stains all cells (count cell numbers).
Shows striations of colours in layers.
Appears purple.
Horseradish peroxidase: stain that provides a method for identifying neural pathways.
Enzyme travels backwards.
Autopsy: examination of the body after death.
oCorrelational method that must be interpreted carefully and precisely.
Relational but not causal.
Imaging techniques:
oCT
oPET: often overlaid with MRI.
oMRI: structural imaging of the brain.
ofMRI: tracks cerebral blood flow.
Recordings: record electrical and magnetic output from the brain.
oElectroencephalogram (EEG): provides information about the relative activity of large groups
of neurons close to the surface.
Specialized use of EEG technology representing the brain’s response to environmental
stimuli.
Using EEG may predict Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Psychiatrists can now better distinguish early signs of AD from normal aging, by
spotting marked differences between the left and right sides of the brain.
oMagnetoencephalogram (MEG): measures the brain’s tiny magnetic input, deeper in the brain
than EEG.
oSingle-cell recordings: allows researchers to observe the responses of individual neurons.
Brain stimulation: artificially stimulating areas of the brain with electricity or magnetism and watching
for resulting behavior.
oCan be applied during neurosurgery.
oTranscranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
oMost stimulation research has been conducted with laboratory animals.
Lesion: naturally occurring or deliberately produced injury to tissue.
Biochemical methods: use of chemical stimulation and Microdialysis.
oDifficult to cross the BBB.
Genetic methods:
oTwin studies
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oAdoption studies
oStudies of genetically modified animals
Stem cells: undifferentiated cells that can divide and differentiate into other types of cells.
oControversial research method.
Research ethics: mechanisms for protection of human participants and animal research subjects.
oFederal government and the Common Rule.
oUniversity review and IRBs.
oPublication process and review.
oAnimal subjects guidelines:
Necessity of research
Basic care and housing
Experimental procedures should cause as little pain and distress as possible
oEmerging issues in research ethics:
Ethics of research on the Internet.
Ethics of stem cell research.
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