cheat sheet for midterm 2

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Published on 8 Apr 2011
1. Writing for the Behavioral and Social Sciences
Types of Articles
1.01 Empirical Studies 1.02 Literature Reviews
1.03 Theoretical Articles 1.04 Methodological Articles
1.05 Case Studies 1.06 Other Types of Articles
Ethical and Legal Standards in Publishing
Ensuring t he Accuracy of Scientific Knowledge
1.07 Ethical Reporting of Research Results
1.08 Data Retention and Sharing
1.09 Duplicate and Piecemeal Publication of Data
1.10 Plagiarism and Self-Plagiarism
Protecting the Rights and Welfare of Research Participants
1.11 Rights and Confidentiality of Research Participants
1.12 Conf lict of Interest
Protecting Intellectual Property Rights
1.13 Publication Credit
1.14 Reviewers
1.15 Authors Copyright on an Unpublished Manuscript
1.16 Planning for Ethical Compliance
2. Manuscript Structure and Content
Journal Article Reporting Standards -Manuscript Elements
2.01 Title 2.02 Authors Name (Byline) and Institutional Affiliation
2.03 Author Note 2.04 Abstract 2.05 Introduction 2.06 Method
2.07 Results 2.08 Discussion 2.09 Multiple Experiments
2.10 Meta-Analyses 2.11 References 2.12 Footnotes
2.13 Appendices and Supplemental Materials
Writing Clearly and Concisely
3.01 Length 61 3.02 Organizing a Manuscript With Headings
3.03 Levels of Heading 3.04 Seriation
Writing Style
3.05 Continuity in Presentation of Ideas
3.06 Smoothness of Expression
3.07 Tone
3.08 Economy of Expression
3.09 Precision and Clarity
3.10 Linguistic Devices
3.11 Strategies to Improve Writing Style
Reducing Bias in Language
General Guidelines for Reducing BiasGuideline 1: Describe at the
Appropriate Level of SpecificityGuideline 2: Be Sensitive to Labels
72 Guideline 3: Acknowledge Participation 73
Reducing Bias by Topic
3.12 Gender 3.13 Sexual Orientation
3.14 Racial and Ethnic Identity 3.15 Disabilities 3.16 Age
3.17 Historical and Interpretive Inaccuracies
4.12 Prefer red Spelling
4.13 Hyphenation
4.14 Words Beginning a Sentence
4.15 Major Words in Titles and Headings
4.16 Proper Nouns and Trade Names
4.17 Nouns Followed by Numerals or Letters
4.18 Titles of Tests
4.19 Names of Conditions or Groups in an Experiment
4.20 Names of Factors, Variables, and Effects
4.21 Use of Italics
4.22 Use of Abbreviations
4.23 Explanation of Abbreviations
4.24 Abbreviations Accepted as Words 107
4.25 Abbreviations Used Often in APA Journals108
4.26 Latin Abbreviations 108
4.27 Scientific Abbreviations 108
4.28 Other Abbreviations 110
4.29 Plurals of Abbreviations 110
4.30 Abbreviations Beginning a Sentence111
Numbers 111
4.31 Numbers Expressed in Numerals111
4.32 Numbers Expressed in Words
4.33 Combining Numerals and Words to Express Numbers
4.34 Ordinal Numbers4.35 Decimal Fractions
4.36 Roman Numerals4.37 Commas in Numbers
4.38 Plurals of Numbers
Metrication 4.39 Policy on Metrication 4.40 Style for Metric Units
Statistical and Mathematical Copy
4.41 Selecting Effective Presentation
4.42 References for Statistics
4.43 Formulas 4.44 Statistics in Text 4.45 Statistical Symbols
4.46 Spacing, Alignment, and Punctuation
4.47 Equations in Text4.48 Displayed Equations
4.49 Preparing Statistical and Mathematical Copy
5. Displaying Results
General Guidance on Tables and Figures
5.01 Purposes of Data Displays
5.02 Design and Preparation of a Data Display
5.03 Graphical Versus Textual Presentation
5.04 Formatting Tables and Figures
5.05 Table and Figure Numbers
5.06 Permission to Reproduce Data Displays
Tables 5.07 Conciseness in Tables
5.08 Table Layout 5.09 Standard Forms
5.10 Relation of Tables and Text 5.11 Relation Between Tables
5.12 Table Titles 5.13 Table Headings 5.14 Table Body
5.15 Confidence Intervals in Tables5.16 Table Notes
5.17 Ruling of Tables
5.18 Presenting Data in Specific Types of Tables
5.19 Table Checklist
Figures 5.20 Principles of Figure Use and Construction
5.21 Types of Figures5.22 Standards for Figures
5.23 Figure Legends and Captions 5.24 Planning Figures
5.25 Preparation of Figures
Presenting Electrophysiological, Radiological +Other Biological Data
5.26 Electrophysiological Data 5.27 Radiological (Imaging) Data
5.28Genetic Data5.29 Photographs 5.30 Figure
6. Crediting Sources When to Cite
6.01 Plagiarism 6.02 Self-Plagiarism
Quoting and Paraphrasing 6.03 Direct Quotation of Sources
6.04 Paraphrasing Material
6.05 Direct Quotations of Online Material Without Pagination
6.06 Accuracy of Quotations
6.07 Changes From the Source Requiring No Explanation
6.08 Changes From the Source Requiring Explanation
6.09 Citations Within Quotations
6.10 Permission to Quote, Reprint, or Adapt
Citing References in Text 6.11 One Work by One Author
6.12 One Work by Multiple Authors
Basic In-Text Citation Styles6.13 Groups as Authors
6.14 Authors With the Same Surname
6.15 Works With No Identified Author or Anonymous Author
6.16 Two or More Works Within the Same Parentheses
6.17 Secondary Sources6.18 Classical Works
6.19 Citing Specific Parts of a Source
6.20 Personal Communications
6.21 Citations in Parenthetical Material
Reference List
6.22 Construction of an Accurate and Complete Reference List
6.23 Consistency
6.24 Using the Archival Copy or Version of Record
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