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PSYC12H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Theory Of Reasoned Action, Authoritarian Personality, Normative Social Influence

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Michael Inzlicht
Study Guide

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Psychology of Prejudice
Chapter 1: Intro to the Study of Stereotyping and Prejudice
Humans have a tendency to form groups
Membership can be restricted on the basis of special skills, family relations,
gender, power, and a host of other factors
o Forming such groups can make their daily lives easier: ex. Through
division of labor among various groups in society order within
society (eg. By government) led to longer, happier and more fulfilling
lives so leads to idea that “groups are the basic building blocks of
Tendency to form groups isn’t unique to humans= basic part of nature that
conveyed survival benefits (fighting off predators, raising offspring
successfully) that withstood time and evolution
o However disadvantages= mate competition, mate retention
People tend to show preferences for members of their own group over those
of other groups
o Even if membership is arbitrarily decided (random assignment to
group A vs. group B= minimal group)
o These preferences form the basis of prejudice= negative feelings
about other groups and stereotypes= certain characteristics
associated with other groups because outgroup members are
perceived to be opposing to the ingroup’s welfare/values
Crimes driven by prejuidice
o Wars: Spanish Inquisition, American Civil War, American slave trade,
Holocaust, genocides in Rwanda and Yugoslavia
o Recent crimes in America (while many believe that desegregation, the
Voting Rights Act of 1965 and affirmative action policies in hiring,
have resulted in racism declining- only OVERT racism has declined:
1998- James Byrd Jr., killed for being black in Texas
1998- Matthew Sheppard, openly gay college student, beaten
and frozen, died a few days later
2006- Trev Broudy, gay actor, attacked and now has
permanent brain damage
Lippmann’s Stereotype
o Originally the word was derived from a printing process where
material is reproduced from a fixed cast
o Lippmann- first used the word to describe the tendency of people to
think of someone or something in similar terms, and as having similar
attributes, based on a common feature shared by each
o Said we have “pictures” in our heads that serve as templates for us to
simplify complicated info received from the world
o Lippmann’s 2 correct ideas:

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Stereotypes tell us what social info is important to
perceive/disregard in our environment We tend to confirm
preexisting stereotypes by paying attention to stereotype-
consistent info and disregarding inconsistent info
And research shows that content of stereotypes is largely
determined by the culture we live in
Stereotyping: Bad to Neutral
o First perceived as a negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups
outward indicator of irrational, nonanalytic cognition rigid
thinking external sign of the stereotyper’s moral defectiveness
o Allport moved away from including evaluative assessments of the
“goodness” of stereotyping or those who stereotype
o Eventually came to be known as a normal psychological process
Social-Cognitive Definition
o Stereotype= ANY generalization about a group whether an observer
(either a member of the stereotyped group or another observer)
believes it is justified or not
By definition a generalization about a group is bound to be
unjustified for some portion of the group members
o Hamiltion/Trolier’s definition: a cognitive structure that contains the
perceiver’s knowledge, beliefs and expectations about a human
group= yet this is too broad= more similar to the definition of a
schema (a cognitive structure that represents knowledge about a
concept including its attributes and relations among those attributes)
o Schemas= broader cognitive structures that contain our knowledge of
a stimulus, our expectations for the motives/behavior of the stimulus
and our feelings toward the stimulus stereotypes are more specific
and subsumed within a schema
o Most used defintion today: stereotype= set of beliefs about the
personal attributes of a group of people= Ashmore + Del Boca defn
Cultural and Individual Stereotypes
o Cultural stereotype= shared/community wide pattern of beliefs
about other groups
o Individual stereotype= beliefs held by an individual about the
characteristics of a group
o Cultural stereotypes and individual stereotypes of a member within
the cultural group are not necessarily the same
o Question: which one predicts future behavior/ actions?
Is a Stereotype an Attitude?
o Attitude= general evaluation of some object= has 3 components:
behavioral, affective, cognitive

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o most researchers agree that stereotypes represent the COGNITIVE
portion of an intergroup attitude, while prejudice represents the
AFFECTIVE and discrimination the BEHAVIORAL
o so stereotype is not an attitude as an intergroup attitude is composed
of one’s thoughts/beliefs about, feelings toward and behavior toward
a particular group
Positive vs. Negative Stereotypes
o Allport- doesn’t regard stereotypes as being good or bad
o Stereotypes= merely generalizations= can be neutral, positive (Asians
are smart) or negative (we tend to be more aware of these)
Defining Prejudice
o Gardner Prejudice= prejudgment about something
o Prejudice more specifically can suggest an EVALUATION (either
positive or negative) about a stimulus
Originally seen as a negative affect abandoned “prejudice-as-emotion”
definition prejudice as an attitude with all three ABC components
Prejudice as an Attitude
Found that the best predictor of negative outgroup prejudice is NOT negative
feelings about an outgroup but rather a LACK of positive emotions
Study= white college students towards various minority groups= found that
affect and behavior were strongest predictors of group attitudes= suggest
intergroup interaction is most dependent on “how good people feel, not how
well they think of group members”
Idea= prejudice is most likely to be displayed towards a disadvantaged group
when that group tries to move into roles for which they are believed by the
majority group (favored group) to be unqualified
Criticism of Prejudice as an attitude=
o Attitude/evaluation is NOT the same as affect and according to Allport
prejudice is an affect-based reaction to a stimulus group
o Notion that prejudice has the ABC components is problematic because
those components are not always consistent low prejudice indivds
can be aware of stereotypes about outgroup, expressed attitudes don’t
always match behaviors
Prejudice as a “Social Emotion”
o Self-categorization theory= states that people view themselves as a
member of a social category/group (racial, ethnic, religious group)
So intergroup interactions will make salient particular group
categorizations Ex. Interacting with someone of a different
religious belief makes self religious categorization most salient
OR interacting with a different nationality makes own
nationality category most salient
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