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PSYC14H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Ingroups And Outgroups

Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Study Guide

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The American pattern of emphasis on
personal characteristics has emerged
in many other Western cultures, such
as those of Australia and Britain
Sweden and Canada
Masai and Samburu pattern of a greater
emphasis on roles and memberships
appears in cultures from much of the rest of
the worldfor example, among Cook
Islanders Malaysians Chinese Native
Americans other African populations
Japanese and Koreans
Americans focused more on how their
performance reflected their own
personal characteristics.
Japanese focused more on how their
performance was guided by the
expectations of others.
. Some cultures encourage people to
focus on their enduring inner
attributes, such as personality traits,
attitudes, or abilities, understand
Other cultures, in contrast, encourage
people to focus on their connections with
others by considering themselves in terms
of concrete roles, relationships, and group
referred to
this self-
Americans think that they are
perceived to be unique, they are self-
contained in that they are perceived
to arise from the individual and not
from interactions with others, they
are viewed as significant for
regulating behavior, and individuals
feel an obligation to publicly advertise
themselves in ways consistent with
these attributes.
a more independent person is likely to
perceive himself or herself as existing
and functioning separately from the
social environment; therefore, the
people in that environment are
relatively more indirect to the
independent individual’s identity.
individuals’ identities are closely connected
with others and are not experienced as
distinct, unique entities.
Interdependent individuals also perceive
aspects of identity that are based on
internal characteristics, but are relatively
less central to their identity.
Individual does not overlap with any
of the borders surrounding its
significant relationships. They are
largely distinct identity from their
When people are focused on how they
relate to others, it is important for them to
consider how their behaviors will affect
others; likewise, they must organize their
own psychological experiences in response
to what others are apparently thinking and
sustained by, a number of significant
People with independent selves have
a number of close relationships with
members of their ingroup, those
relationships are less self-defining
than relationships of those with more
The have more self-defining relationships
compared to independent selves.
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