PSYC14H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Stereotype Threat, Social Stigma, Nuclear Family

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Published on 2 Apr 2014
Chapter 6: Self and Personality
! American focused more on how their performance reflected their own personal
characteristics, whereas, the Japanese focused more on how their performance was guided
by the expectations of others
! Culture " influence our understanding of ourselves " influences the ways we perceive and
interact with the social world
! Twenty Statements Test: Who am I? I am…
It reveals how culture influences our identities in 2 levels: superficial and deep
Superficial Level: We become the identity due to being exposed to this culture,
hence, culture is providing the content about the ways we think of ourselves and not
about why we describe ourselves this way. For example: we would still be defining
ourselves in terms of sports and music, and the differences would be that we were
exposed to different kinds of sports and music, therefore, we might appear highly
similar across experiences in these two diverse cultural worlds and vary only in terms
of the content of things that we would be thinking about.
Deep Level: People of all over the world are able to think of themselves in terms of
both abstract enduring psychological attributes and concrete roles and relationships;
the degree to which we view ourselves in these two separate ways vary significantly
across cultures.
! Case Study: Kenyans and Americans
1st – Conduct the Twenty Statements Test on samples from both groups
Kenya – a sample of University students in Nairobi " most Westernized
Kenya – a sample of employed adults in Nairobi " slightly less Westernized
Kenya – a sample of traditionally indigenous people in Samburu and Masai " least
American – a sample of undergraduates
Findings – the most popular kinds of self-descriptions for the Americans were
personal characteristics, such as their traits, attitudes, and abilities
Findings – the people of Masai and Samburu generally defined themselves in terms
of their social identity, such as their roles and memberships
Findings – the Kenyan University students were more similar to the American
pattern, while the employees were more similar to the traditional indigenous people
Conclusions – the American pattern of emphasis on personal characteristics has
emerged in many Western cultures, while the traditional indigenous people’s pattern
of greater emphasis on roles and memberships appears in cultures from much of the
rest of the world – these cultural differences are already evident in kindergarten
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! Independent vs. Interdependent Views of Self – emerge in places where there are cultural
practices that sustain them
Independent View of Self: self can be thought to derive its identity from its inner
attributes which are stable across situations, unique configuration, self-contained in
that they are perceived to arise from the individual and not from interactions with
others, significant in regulation of behavior, and individuals feel an obligation to
publicly advertise themselves in ways consistent with these attributes; distinct and
autonomous entities whose identities are grounded in a variety of internal component
features and interact with other similarly independent entities
Independent View of Self
o The circle around the individual does not overlap with any borders
surroundings its significant relationship " the independent individual
experiences her identity as largely distinct from their relationship
o The border around the individual is a solid line " individual’s experience are
o The border around the in-group that separates one’s close relationships from
one’s more distant relations is drawn with a dotted line to indicate its fluidity
" individuals with independent identities still feel much closer to in-group
than out-group members but do not view them in fundamentally distinct ways
" self and non-self
o X " aspects of identities or the kinds of features that people consider when
they think of themselves " the larger the X, the more important
o Larger X’s (i.e. personal attributes) are found within the circle of the
Interdependent View of Self: the self can be viewed as a relational entity that is
fundamentally connected to and sustained by a number of significant relationships
such that behavior is contingent upon perceptions of others’ thoughts, feelings, and
actions, therefore, individuals are participants of a larger social unit
Interdependent View of Self
o The border surrounding the interdependent self overlaps with an individual’s
significant relationships " interdependent individual’s identities are closely
connected with others
o The large X’s that represent the key aspects of identity for interdependent
individual rests at the intersection between individual and their significant
relationship " the self’s identities are grounded in their relationships with
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o Dotted line encapsulating the individual " the identity of the person is
experienced as somewhat fluid in different situations such that the experience
of self will depend on the situation and the role the person is taking on at the
o The border that separates the in-group from out-group is drawn with a solid
line " a relatively significant and stable distinction since the self derives their
identities through these relationships
! MRI Study: Westerners showed different regions of brain activation # they represent
themselves and their mothers in distinct ways vs. Chinese showed activation patterns in the
same brain regions when considering how well a number of trait adjectives characterized
themselves or their mothers
! Self-concepts are shaped by cultural practices that direct what individuals attend to, value,
believe, and are able to attain
! Individualism vs. Collectivism
! Most people participate in collectivistic cultures where interdependent selves are more
common which encompasses more than 80% of the world’s population
! Everyone occasionally experiences the self as a separate self-contained unit or as an
interconnected relational unit, and how people differ can be seen as the proportion of time
they think of themselves in each of these ways or as their default way of viewing themselves
! All cultures are highly heterogeneous – when a culture is said to be individualistic, it means
that on average people in that culture are exposed to more cultural messages encouraging
them to think in independent ways but individuals will respond to these messages in a variety
of different way but some will embrace them more than others
! Factors: collectivism, relatedness, agency, and assertiveness
Women are more interdependent than men only with respect to their attention to others’
feelings and concerns (relatedness)
! Case Study: Sex Role Ideology scale to investigate people’s attitudes toward how men and
women should act and how they perceive statements as either traditional or egalitarian
There are striking differences in views toward gender equality around the world.
Regardless of where the data was collected, within a culture, men and women tended to share
fairly similar views about gender equality " culture shapes our views
Males had significantly more traditional gender views than females
Religion, geographical location, urbanization, individualism score influence gender views
! Agriculture’s influence on gender roles :
Shifting Cultivation – women
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