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PSYC21H3 (14)
Midterm

All readings after the midterm

19 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC21H3
Professor
David Haley

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PSYC21 Final readings
Week 6 Reading: Evolutionary Origins of Social communication
Development of imitation: a comparative cognitive science approach
Imitation Humans must appropriately extract key elements from the info of others body movements
^ constantly changes over time
mentally assemble the extracted elements
control our own bodies to replicate the actions accurately
by imitating actions of others, observer can efficiently acquire the adaptive skills specific to
their group
w/o depending only on trial and error, or individual learning
ensures successful communication with others in order to ensure survival of group
members
effective communication requires ability to predict & understand behavior of others with
the same mental state as oneself
ToM: ability to understand intentions, goals, beliefs, & thoughts of others
Product of evoln that has enabled humans to survive in complex social environments
Imitation = believed to serve as foundn for development of these kinds of mental
structures
Infants can learn that they share certain physical traits with others
Can compare their own experience of perf the same actions with the observed actions of
others
Helps infants develop a mental state of awareness that links them to the mental states of
others
Imitation also believed to play an esp imp role in imaginative ability of conceiving an object
not present, and to serve as a prereq for rep an object by abstract thought (eg: language)
Humans vs.
chimpsmonkey see, monkey do = untrue!!
Body imitation is difficult for monkeys & chimps
Chimps find it more difficult to perf actions that involved manipulating one object than
those that involved manipulating one object toward another object, or manipulating one
object toward me
They reproduced actions involving familiar motor patterns more easily than unfamiliar
ones
But freq for imitation even for familiar actions were very low
Style of recognizing actions of others is diff in chimps than in humans
Info about body movements of other chimps (motor patterns) did not translate easily into
clues for reproducing the actions, for the chimps
Results indicate that when chimps are imitating, they pay less attn to body movements
and more to the objects being manipulated
It is very difficult for chimps to appropriately map the visual images of the body
movements of another in correspondence to their own body movements
Can humans
imitate from
time of
birth?
Meltzoff & Moore (1977): even newborn humans possess the ability to perform imitation w/
parts of their bodies they cant see themselves
Based on the fact that infants can imitate some facial expressions (like sticking out tongue,
aka neonatal imitation), hypothesized that humans possess an inherent body-mapping
capability
Aka active inter-modal mapping (AIM)
This develops with age and allows humans to develop the ability to imitate more complex
www.notesolution.com
behavior
Neonatal imitation disappears/ lessens @ 2 months after birth, reappears @ about 1 year
Newborn chimps were able to differentiate & reproduce the facial expressions of another
individual from a week after birth
Neonatal imitation found to be shared b/w humans & chimps
Mechanisms
supporting
neonatal
imitation
Chimp neonatal imitation disappeared 9 weeks after birth
Neonatal imitation cant be explained by primordial reflex theory
Humans & chimps are able to differentiate b/w at least 2 diff expressions: tongue
protrusion & mouth opening
Baron-Cohen (1996): it is possible to perf imitative actions limited to the neonatal level w/o
perf body mapping b/w ones body and anothers
Human neonates do not perceive stimuli via specific sensory modalities with specialized
cortical nerve pathways
Stimuli are perceived in a synesthetic, amodal state on the subcortical level
Human infants can perceive stimulus traits w/o separating sight & touch
Within this amodal sensory system, newborns are thought to perceive moving stimuli
It is suggested that neonatal imitation is the result of infants synesthetically outputting
this info onto their own bodies
2 views of how the actions of others are regarded:
AIMunderstanding of the mental state of another person is developed thru auto & direct
inherent mapping of anothers body movements onto our own body
all actions of another individual are imitated and actually experienced with ones own
body
leads to a simulation of anothers perspective thru oneself
thru imitation immediately after birth, infants attribute their own mental states to mind
of the actor
Goal-
directed human infants interpret & imitate the actions of others in attempts to achieve goals
efficiently
imitation faithfully based on mapping was not observed (cant imitate touchin ear with
opposite hand)
this rational cognitive style seen in the head-light experiment = teleological stance
this isnt associated with the mental states of the other individual
its thought to be limited to a nonmentalistic level of explaining and predicting the goal of
action
Imitation as a form of communication, and its evoln origins
diff ways in which humans & chimps recognize (input) the behavior of others may be a reason for
the diff in their imitation abilities
Development of
social
communication
& imitation
humans are able to imitate behaviors before 1 year of age if the action is
sufficiently simple
social communication based on the dyadic relationship occurs increasingly from
4mon
infants learn during this period to manipulate objects in simple ways
imitation based on a triadic relationship that is guided by an adult enables a more
faithful reexperiencing in the infant of the others action
Meltzoff (1990): 9mo infants prefer those who are imitating them than those who
dont
Human infants learn each day w/ the guidance of others of how to communicate
www.notesolution.com
thru imitation
Sharing body
experiencesYou pinching yourself = bidirectional, you feel being pinched & pinching
being pinched = unidirectional, you feel only being pinched
Ecological self: through repeated body experiences such as these, human infants
become aware of how their own action can affect the external world
Through repetitions of self-awareness, infant becomes able to differentiate b/w
their own actions and those of others, while realizing that many aspects are
shared b/w the 2
By merely watching the actions of others, infant can gain access to intentional
mental states behind those actions
Infant can project their own mental state onto others
As infant performs shared imitation w/ others, mapping occurs in greater detail
Develops gradually through accumulation of shared body experiences with others
based on triadic communication
Development &
evoln of
imitation
ability
It is very rare for chimps to interact triadically
Human infants understand objects thru the perspectives of others
This is rarely observed in chimps (moms dont interact with the chimp)
Chimps appear to predict the purpose of an action from their knowledge of the
objects traits & fxns, and the change of state they experience
Cant use the brush except for brushing (eg; cant hit with the brush, even when
shown
Humans can predict the goals of someone w/o being restricted to a specific context
Mirror neurons: vental premotor area F5, inferior parietal cortex of the macaque
Discharges when a monkey perfs an action
Pigtailed macaques are capable of recognizing when they’re being imitated
Week 8 Reading: Inference or interaction social cognition w/o precursors
interaction theory (IT) as an alternative to both theory theory (TT) and simulation theory (ST)
various capacities for primary and secondary intersubjectivity found in infancy and early
childhood should not be thought of as precursors to later developing capacities for using folk
psychology or simulation routines
they various capacities for primary and secondary intersubjectivity found in infancy and early
childhood should not be thought of as precursors to later developing capacities for using folk
psychology or simulation routines
standard and dominant models of social cognition: TT and ST
Theory theorywe rely on our folk psychological theory to formulate the
inference
Simulation
theorywe explicitly simulate what must be going on in the others
mind by imagining ourselves in his or her shoes
social cognition is a problem (the problem of other minds) because we lack direct access to other
minds
we need some special cognitive process (theorizing, simulating) that will allow us to infer
(mindread, mentalize) mental states in others
our normal everyday stance toward the other person is an observational stance
we observe behaviors with some degree of detachment, and we use those observations as
evidence for our theorizing, or as starting points for our simulating
these mentalizing processes (theorizing or simulating) constitute our primary and pervasive way
of understanding others
we attempt to explain or predict their behavior by divining their mental states
www.notesolution.com

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Description
PSYC21 Final readings Week 6 Reading: Evolutionary Origins of Social communication Development of imitation: a comparative cognitive science approach Imitation Humans must appropriately extract key elements from the info of others body movements ^ constantly changes over time mentally assemble the extracted elements control our own bodies to replicate the actions accurately by imitating actions of others, observer can efficiently acquire the adaptive skills specific to their group w/o depending only on trial and error, or individual learning ensures successful communication with others in order to ensure survival of group members effective communication requires ability to predict & understand behavior of others with the same mental state as oneself ToM: ability to understand intentions, goals, beliefs, & thoughts of others Product of evoln that has enabled humans to survive in complex social environments Imitation = believed to serve as foundn for development of these kinds of mental structures Infants can learn that they share certain physical traits with others Can compare their own experience of perf the same actions with the observed actions of others Helps infants develop a mental state of awareness that links them to the mental states of others Imitation also believed to play an esp imp role in imaginative ability of conceiving an object not present, and to serve as a prereq for rep an object by abstract thought (eg: language) Humans vs. monkey see, monkey do = untrue!! chimps Body imitation is difficult for monkeys & chimps Chimps find it more difficult to perf actions that involved manipulating one object than those that involved manipulating one object toward another object, or manipulating one object toward me They reproduced actions involving familiar motor patterns more easily than unfamiliar ones But freq for imitation even for familiar actions were very low Style of recognizing actions of others is diff in chimps than in humans Info about body movements of other chimps (motor patterns) did not translate easily into clues for reproducing the actions, for the chimps Results indicate that when chimps are imitating, they pay less attn to body movements and more to the objects being manipulated It is very difficult for chimps to appropriately map the visual images of the body movements of another in correspondence to their own body movements Can humans Meltzoff & Moore (1977): even newborn humans possess the ability to perform imitation w/ imitate from parts of their bodies they cant see themselves time of Based on the fact that infants can imitate some facial expressions (like sticking out tongue, birth? aka neonatal imitation), hypothesized that humans possess an inherent body-mapping capability Aka active inter-modal mapping (AIM) This develops with age and allows humans to develop the ability to imitate more complex www.notesolution.com behavior Neonatal imitation disappears/ lessens @2 months after birth, reappears @about 1 year Newborn chimps were able to differentiate & reproduce the facial expressions of another individual from a week after birth Neonatal imitation found to be shared b/w humans & chimps Mechanisms Chimp neonatal imitation disappeared 9 weeks after birth supporting Neonatal imitation cant be explained by primordial reflex theory neonatal Humans & chimps are able to differentiate b/w at least 2 diff expressions: tongue imitation protrusion & mouth opening Baron-Cohen (1996): it is possible to perf imitative actions limited to the neonatal level w/o perf body mapping b/w ones body and anothers Human neonates do not perceive stimuli via specific sensory modalities with specialized cortical nerve pathways Stimuli are perceived in a synesthetic, amodal state on the subcortical level Human infants can perceive stimulus traits w/o separating sight & touch Within this amodal sensory system, newborns are thought to perceive moving stimuli It is suggested that neonatal imitation is the result of infants synesthetically outputting this info onto their own bodies 2 views of how the actions of others are regarded: AIM understanding of the mental state of another person is developed thru auto & direct inherent mapping of anothers body movements onto our own body all actions of another individual are imitated and actually experienced with ones own body leads to a simulation of anothers perspective thru oneself thru imitation immediately after birth, infants attribute their own mental states to mind of the actor Goal- human infants interpret & imitate the actions of others in attempts to achieve goals directed efficiently imitation faithfully based on mapping was not observed (cant imitate touchin ear with opposite hand) this rational cognitive style seen in the head-light experiment = teleological stance this isnt associated with the mental states of the other individual its thought to be limited to a nonmentalistic level of explaining and predicting the goal of action Imitation as a form of communication, and its evoln origins diff ways in which humans & chimps recognize (input) the behavior of others may be a reason for the diff in their imitation abilities Development of humans are able to imitate behaviors before 1 year of age if the action is social sufficiently simple communication social communication based on the dyadic relationship occurs increasingly from & imitation 4mon infants learn during this period to manipulate objects in simple ways imitation based on a triadic relationship that is guided by an adult enables a more faithful reexperiencing in the infant of the others action Meltzoff (1990): 9mo infants prefer those who are imitating them than those who dont Human infants learn each day w/ the guidance of others of how to communicate www.notesolution.com thru imitation Sharing body You pinching yourself = bidirectional, you feel being pinched & pinching experiences being pinched = unidirectional, you feel only being pinched Ecological self: through repeated body experiences such as these, human infants become aware of how their own action can affect the external world Through repetitions of self-awareness, infant becomes able to differentiate b/w their own actions and those of others, while realizing that many aspects are shared b/w the 2 By merely watching the actions of others, infant can gain access to intentional mental states behind those actions Infant can project their own mental state onto others As infant performs shared imitation w/ others, mapping occurs in greater detail Develops gradually through accumulation of shared body experiences with others based on triadic communication Development & It is very rare for chimps to interact triadically evoln of Human infants understand objects thru the perspectives of others imitation This is rarely observed in chimps (moms dont interact with the chimp) ability Chimps appear to predict the purpose of an action from their knowledge of the objects traits & fxns, and the change of state they experience Cant use the brush except for brushing (eg; cant hit with the brush, even when shown Humans can predict the goals of someone w/o being restricted to a specific context Mirror neurons: vental premotor area F5, inferior parietal cortex of the macaque Discharges when a monkey perfs an action Pigtailed macaques are capable of recognizing when theyre being imitated Week 8 Reading: Inference or interaction social cognition w/o precursors interaction theory (IT) as an alternative to both theory theory (TT) and simulation theory (ST) various capacities for primary and secondary intersubjectivity found in infancy and early childhood should not be thought of as precursors to later developing capacities for using folk psychology or simulation routines they various capacities for primary and secondary intersubjectivity found in infancy and early childhood should
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