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PSYA01 - Final Exam Notes.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steve Joordens

Psychology Final Exam Notes 12/5/2012 11:22:00 AM Chapter 1 Slides/Textbook Slides 1-3 Cartesian Dualism  A machine, controlled by a soul John Locke  Believed that mind is machine, and that La Tabla Rassa o Empiricism  All knowledge is acquired through experience Hermann von Helmholtz  Measured speed of neural impulse o Experiment to hold hands and squeeze until it passed the end Ernst Weber  Psychophysics William Wundt  First to refer himself as a psychologist o Psych as a science  Structuralist approach Darwin and James  Functionalism o Focus on the purpose of the mental world, not what it “looks” like Sigmund Freud  Medical doctor, not a scientist  Psychological disease, linked mostly to psychological conflict  Psychoanalysis o Promoted cocaine, sexual and aggressive urges  They hated freud because the lack of testable theories o Freud – does the client feel better o Scientists – do you have a theory that leads to predictions we can test Gestalt Psychology  Understand the laws underlying our amazing ability to acquire and maintain stable percepts in a noisy world Humanistic Psychology  Counter to Freud, on a positive aspect to humanity Behaviorism  Ivan Pavlov o Shunned discussions of any psychological concept  John B. Watson o Consciousness, attention, memory, perception, etc.…  B.F Skinner o Study of association between stimuli and reaction responses Human behavior is all composed by  Biological sciences with how the brain works  Personal as sexual behavior  Social as prejudice  Clinical as psychopathy Textbook Chapter 1 Psychology – the study of mind and behavior  Mind – private inner experience of thoughts, memories, and feeling  Behavior – things we do in the world, or observable actions of human beings Bases of perceptions, thought, memories, feeling, or our subjective sense of self?  Thought to be pineal gland for thousands of years, however, it’s proven false fMRI – scans brain Structuralists  Analyzing of the mind by breaking it down into its basic components Functionalists  How mental abilities allow people to adapt to their environments Plato argued for nativism  Certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn o Natural in the mind Aristotle believed in  Tabula rasa (blank slate)  Philosophical empiricism – all knowledge is acquired through experience Cartesian dualism – mental activity can be reconciled and coordinated with physical behavior Physiology  Study of biological processes, especially in the human body Helmholtz  Measured the speed of responses o Stimulus – sensory input from the environment o Reaction time – amount of time taken to respond to a specific stimulus Wundt  Scientific psychology should focus on analyzing o Consciousness – person’s subjective experience of the world and the mind  Later on adopted, structuralism o Structuralism - Analysis of basic elements that constitute the mind  Introspection was used as a systematic method – subjective observation of one’s own experience James  Came up with publishing The Principles of Psychology o Approached Functionalism  Functionalism – study of the purpose of mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment Darwin  Also coined up the idea of Natural Selection Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory  Unconscious – part of the mind that operates outside of conscious awareness but influences conscious thought, feelings, and actions  Later on developed into psychoanalytic theory o Psychoanalytic theory – approach that emphasizes importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors  However, Freud had a dark nature of psychoanalysis o Humanistic psychology – approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes positive potential of human beings Behaviorism – psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior Skinner – coined the idea of the skinner boy  Reinforcement – consequence of behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again Wertheimer’s interpretation led to  Gestalt Psychology – psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts Chapter 2 Slides/Textbook Slides 4-6 Scientific process begins with a theory…  “good” theories lead to hypotheses o empirically tested in a way that might prove them falsifiable Naturalistic observation  find theories Variable – anything that can take on multiple values  Whether a variable is categorical or continuous depends on how it is measured Mean – average value Median – middle number Mode – reoccurring value through observation Correlational studies ?  Naturalistic studies lead to correlational studies o Through observation one see links, relationships, between different variables Experiment involves contrasting “behavior” across two conditions that “differ”  Independent variable – variable that was changed to create the critical difference across conditions … presence/absence of current  Dependent variable – a variable reflects the “behavior” of interest…aggression Validity vs. Reliability  Validity – whether one believes that a given operational definition really reflects theoretical entity o Increased by manipulation checks, and convergence from the use of other operational def.  Reliability – how accurate the dependent variable can be measured o can be measured and quantified Internal validity  confound – present when some variable, other than independent variable, also caries across groups  random sampling – avoid confounds…  replications – subsequent experiments that find the same results with a different sample of participants Research ethics in humans  Told ethical relevant aspect of experiment, Textbook Chapter 2 Empiricism – belief that accurate knowledge can be acquired through observation  Dogmatism – tendency for people to cling to their assumptions Scientific method – set of principle about the appropriate relationship between ideas and evidence  Measure – device that can detect condition to which an operational definition refers  Validity - The extent to which a measurement and a property are conceptually related  Reliability - tendency for a measure to produce the same measurement whenever it is used to measure the same thing o Normal distribution – mathematically defined frequency distribution  Mean – average value  Median – middle value  Mode – reoccurring value o Range – value of largest measurement in a frequency distribution o Variable – property whose value can vary across individuals over time o Correlation – two variables said to be correlated, when variations in the value of one variable are synchronized with variations in the value of the other  Experiment – technique for establishing the causal relationship between variables  Manipulation - the creation of an artificial pattern or variation in a variable in order to determine its casual powers  independent variable - the variable that is manipulated in an experiment  dependent variable - the variable that is measured in a study  internal validity - the characteristic of an experiment that establishes the causal relationship between variables  external validity - a property of an experiment in which the variables have been operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way Chapter 3 Slides/Textbook Slides 8-10 Sensory neurons – excitatory message to interneurons in the spinal cord of the brain – motor neurons Cortex vs. Midbrain  Cortex o High level perception, controlled motor sensors originate, all our controlled interactions with the external world  Cerebellum, Occipital Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Frontal Lobe, Temporal Lobe Primary vs. Association  Primary – sensory or motor connections  Association – interpretation via memory Contralateral  Left side of the brain controls the right side of the body  Right side of the brain controls the left side of the body Occipital Lobe  Lower part of the temporal lobe o Devotes to vision  Primary – related to site  Association – providing interface between visual input and memory o Agnosia – inability to name objects Temporal Lobe  Devoted to audition o Primary – auditory cortex is hidden from view, lying inside the upper temporal lobe o Association – auditory is located on the later surface of the temporal lobe Parietal Lobe  Primary - sensory functions involves perception of the body  Association – involved in complex spatial functions, o Left parietal appears to keep track of the spatial location of our body parts – proprioception o Right parietal appears to keep track of the spatial locations of things in our external world Homunculi  Sensory cortex – Sen’ co  Motor Cortex – Mo’ co Frontal Lobes  All about output o Brain stem – involved in most basic behaviors o Medulla – respiration, blood pressure, heart rate o Pons – sleep o mid brain – fighting and sexual behavior o cerebellum – computations necessary for precise motor movements Thalamus  Center of the brain and performs two basic functions; reception and integration of perceptual info, passing info to the relevant cortical regions o Hypothalamus  Located below the thalamus  Monitors blood flow thru the brain and controls the pituitary gland – endocrine gland attached to the base of the skull  Endocrine gland – release hormones which act like neurotransmitter over long distances Textbook Chapter 3 Components of a neuron  Cell body – coordinates processing tasks and keeps the cell alive  Dendrites – receives information from other neurons and relays it to the cell body  Axon – transmits information to the other neurons, muscles, or glands Major types of neurons  Sensory neurons – receive info from the external world and convey this info to the brain via spinal cord  Motor neurons – carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles  Interneurons – connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons Neurotransmitter – chemicals that transmit info across the synapse to a receiving neuron’s dendrites Action potential - An electric signal that is conducted along a neurons axon to a synapse Refractory period - The time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated Types and functions of neurotransmitters  Ach – voluntary motor control  Dopamine – motor behavior, motivation, pleasure, arousal  Glutamate – information transmission throughout the brain  GABA – primary inhibitory in the brain  Norepinephrine – influences mood and arousal  Serotonin – regulation of sleeping wakefulness, eating, aggressive behavior o Agonists – increase the action of neurotransmitter o Antagonists – block the function of neurotransmitter Somatic Nervous System vs. Autonomic Nervous System  Somatic – conveys information into and out of the central nervous system  Autonomic – carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands o Sympathetic nervous system – prepares the body for action in threatening situations o Parasympathetic nervous system – helps the body return to normal resting state Structure of the brain  Hind brain – coordinates info coming and going through the spinal cord o Medulla – coordinates heart rate, circulation, respiration o Reticular formation – regulates sleep, wakefulness, arousal o Cerebellum – motor skills o Pons – relays info from cerebellum to the rest of the brain  Midbrain o Tectum – orients an organism in the environment o Tegmentum – involved in movement and arousal  Forebrain – complex cognitive, emotional, sensory and motor functions o Cerebral cortex – two hemispheres. Contralateral ? o Subcortical structures  Limbic system  Thalamus – receives input from all senses and transmits it to the cerebral cortex  Hypothalamus – regulates body temp, hunger, thirst, sexual behavior  Pituitary gland – master gland, hormone producing  Hippocampus – creating new memories and integrating into a network of knowledge  Amygdala – central role in many emotional processes, particularly formation of emotional memories Occipital lobe – processes visual info Parietal lobe – functions include processing info about touch Temporal lobe – responsible for hearing and language Frontal lobe – specialized in movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory and judgment Chapter 4 Slides/Textbook Slides 11-13 Signal Detection Theory  “Yes” o Present HIT o Absent FALSE ALARM  “No” o Present MISS o Absent CORRECT NEGATIVE Perception vs. Sensation  Limits of sensation o Eye  Iris – muscle that controls the size of the pupil  Pupil – opening that allows light into the eyeball  Sclera – white part, membrane that serves protection  Cornea – provides moisture and nutrients  Lens – focuses incoming light onto retina  Aqueous Humor – nourishes front of the eye  Vitreous humor - nourishes and supports inner part of the eye  Retina – surface the image lands on Transduction – sensory neurons that play the critical role of translating physical properties of the outside world into neural signals  Visual transduction o Photoreceptors – rods and cones o Bipolar cells – image sharpening, edges and contours made crisper o Ganglion cells – color sharpening  Photoreceptors – light strikes back of the eye stimulating cells which can be rods or cones o Rods – not responsive to color, but responsive to dim light o Cones – sensitive to color, provide detailed imaging  Bi-polar cells o Signal from photoreceptors passed to bipolar cells  Emphasize edges and contours  Ganglion cells o Red/green cells, resting behavior. mid level rate of responding  Rate increases when red is present, decrease when green is present o Yellow/blue increases when both red and green are present  Decreases when blue Is present Perception  Gestalt psychology – primary purpose of the visual system is the recognition of objects from basic visual elements o Objects seen as more than a sum of parts, how to group the elements to form objects Laws  Proximity – oo oo oo  Similar color – oo oo oo  Similar size – oo OO oo  Common fate – o^o^ o>o>  Closure – )(  Common region – (oo) (oo)  Element connectedness – o-o o-o Spatial info  Binocular cues o Convergence  Two eyes converge on an object when we are viewing it, brain can use the angle of convergence as a cue to how far away that object is o Retinal disparity  Whenever we are not focusing on an object, the image of that object falls on different points of the two retinas  Disparity between two retinal images can be used as cues for distance  Monocular cues o Interposition o Texture o Perspective o Shading o Motion parallax Textbook Chapter 4 Sensation  Simple stimulation of a sense Perception  The organization, identification, and interpretation of a sensation in order to form a mental representation Transduction  What takes place when many sensors in the body convert physical signals from the environment into encoded neural signals sent to the central nervous system Absolute threshold  The minimal intensity needed to just barely detect a stimulus Weber’s Law  The just noticeable difference of a stimulus is a constant proportion despite variations in intensity Signal detection theory  An observation that the response to a stimulus depends both on a persons sensitivity to the stimulus in the presence of noise and on a persons response criterion Sensory adaptation  Sensitivity to prolonged stimulation tends to decline over time as an organism adapts to current conditions Retina  Light sensitive tissue lining the back of the eyeball Accommodation  The process by which the eye maintains a clear image on the retina Cones  Photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail Rods  Photoreceptors that become active under low-light conditions for night vision Receptive field  The region of the sensory surface that, when stimulated, causes ia change in the firing rate of that neuron Monocular depth cues  Aspects of a scene that yield information about depth when viewed with only one eye Binocular disparity  The difference in the retinal images of the two eyes that provides information about depth Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs)  Receptor cells that initiate the sense of smell Olfactory bulb  A brain structure located above the nasal cavity beneath the frontal lobes Chapter 5 Slides/Textbook Slides 14-15 Consciousness – subjective experience of the world and mind  Intentionality – consciousness is directed toward something  Unit
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