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PSYA01 MIDTERM NOTES (Chapter 1-4).docx

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Steve Joordens

PSYCHOLOGY MIDTERM NOTES Fields of Psychology Physiological:  Examines physiology of behaviour, The organism’s physiology esp. the nervous system  Study all behavioural phenomenon in non-human animals (learning, memory, sensory processes, emotional behaviour, motivation, sexual behaviour, sleep) as model to understand human  Drugs act on particular part of brain involved in reactions to pleasurable events understanding how they affect the brain can help develop medication to break addictions Comparitive:  Studies behaviours of a variety of organisms to understand adaptive and functional significance of behaviours related to evolution  Study behaviour similar to physiological, likely to study inherited behavioural patterns(courting, mating, predation, aggression, defensive and paternal behaviours)  Show drugs are also addictive in animals Behaviour Analysis:  Study effect of environment on behaviour, primarily the consequences of behaviours on behaviours themselves  Primarily interested in learning and motivation, believe behaviour relationship between an action and a consequent event Behaviour Genetics:  Study the role of genetics in behaviour  Examine similarities in physical and behavioural characteristics of blood relatives Cognitive:  Studies complex behaviours and mental processes (perception, attention, learning, memory, verbal behaviour, concept formation and problem solving)  Focus on behaviour of people whose brains been damaged by natural causes Developmental:  Study of physical, emotional and social development Social:  Effects of people on people, cause and effect relations in human interactions Personality:  Individual differences in behaviour patterns, causal events in person’s history and genetic environment Cross-Cultural:  Impact of Culture on behaviour Clinical:  Study of psychological disorders, applying learned theories about causes of disorder to the individual patient Organizational – in industrial work processes HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY Rene Descartes: 17 century philosopher and mathematician - Rationalist  Father of modern psychology, advocated impersonal investigation of phenomenon using sensory experience and human reasoning  Human and animal body mechanical, what set human apart is mind  Proponent of Dualism [reality divided into mind and matter], suggested causal interaction between the two  vital to development of psychological science  Imposed by moving statues [movements caused by controlling of fluid, thought to be caused by brainstem]  Human’s greater than sum of the physical parts John Locke: English Philosopher - Empiricist  Proposed all knowledge come through experience, the cleaned slate model.  Believed simple ideas linked to form complex ones George Berkely:  Knowledge of events in world require inference based on accumulation of past experiences, we learn how to perceive Locke and Berkely speculated on origins of knowledge and concept of learning, rejected Descartes version of mind, tried to fit reason into equation James Mill: Scottish Philosopher – Swing from Animism to Materialism  Worked on assumption humans and animals the same  Essentially agreed with Descartes, BUT mind just as passive as body- both machines Luigi Galvani: Italian physiologist  Electrical stimulus to frog leg disproves Descartes theory, and showing muscles themselves contained the energy to contract Johannes Muller:  Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies – nerves only differ in where they start and end, energy the same Remove and isolate animals organs and test responses to chemicals  Implication: Different sections of brain serves different purposes Pierre Flourens: French physiologist  Conducted Experimental Ablation to discover parts of brain meaningful to heart rate breathing, purposeful movements and visual/auditory reflexes Gustav Fritsch & Eduard Hitzig: German physiologists:  Introduced electrical stimulation to map the functions of the brain  Penfield later shows sensory experiences and memory can be mapped the same Hermann Helmholtz: German physicist and physiologist  Did much to demonstrate mental phenomenon explain by physiological means  Measured the speed of nerve impulses [ researchers now theorized mental events can be subject to investigation] Ernst Weber:  Able to distinguish between two similar stimuli [brightness of light, loudness of sound] psychophsyics : relation between physical characteristics of stimulus and perception produced Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard:  Wild boy of Aveyron  John Dewey – education must match way children’s abilities develop Edward Thorndike:  Defined Law of Effect – stimuli that occur as a consequence increase or decrease making response again  View used in most north American education today Maria Montessori:  Applied Itard’s approach to individualized instruction  Believed kids sensitive to different kinds of instructions at specific age ranges Phillipe Pinel: Father of Psychiatry  Propse asylum could be therapeutic institution  Belief mental illness had social cause and could be cured similarily Wilhelm Wundt: STRUCTURALIST  First person to call himself a psychologist [ Principles of Physiological Psychology the FIRST psych text]  Established psychology as independent science apart from philosophy James Baldwin:  Professor of psychology at UofT – first modern psychologist in university – quite controversial TRENDS IN PSYCHOLOGY Structuralism: [emphasized introspective analysis of sensation and perception] Wudnt  Raw material provided by trained observers who described their experiences  Trained observers attempted to ignore complex perceptions  Structuralism died out in 1900’s DIFFICULTY OF REPORTING RAW DATA OF SENSATION UNMODIFIED BY EXPERIENCES Functionalism: [understanding structural or behavioural features by establishing usefulness in respect to survival and reproductive success]  Large part of reaction against Wundt’s Structuralism  Focused on conscious activity – grew on Darwin’s perspective on nature – stressed biological significance of natural processes including behaviour, emphasis on observable behaviours  Darwin’s theory suggested behaviours can be explained by understanding role in adaptation of organism to environment  MOST IMPORTANT PSYCHOLOGIST TO EMBRACE: WILLIAM JAMES – theory of emotion most famous and durable psychological theories Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory:  Greatly affect psychology, ,psychiatry and influence intellectuals of all kinds  Firmly rooted in biology - theory of mind included structures, but different than structuralism, it included id ego, superego [devised through talking with patients not lab experiments]  Emphasized function – mental structures serve biological drives and instincts to reflect our animal nature Behaviourism: [asserts only proper matter for scientific study is observable behaviour]  Began with book by John Watson STRONGEST EMPIRICIST but moved away from being that strict  Relation between people’s environments and their behaviour  Thorndike’s Law of Effect / Pavlov and Salivating Dog / Skinner and self stimulating Rats  Imagery and attention again considered proper subject matter for investigation  Washburn suggests introspection a form of behaviour itself Humanistic Psychology: [emphasizes human experience, choice, creativity, self realization, positive growth]  1950/60s reaction to behaviourism and psychoanalysis  Insist human nature go beyond mental influence, should study conscious and not unconscious processes Emphasis on Cognition: [Began with Wertheimmer]  Attempt to study organization of cognitive process not elements GESTALT  We recognize song on relation of notes to each other not individual notes  Much of Cognitive Psych use Information Processing [information received and processed through neurons] – relating the brain to a computer, some store info, some control behaviour  They use objective research means – experience of imagery not scientifically shared but behaviours based on images can Emphasis on Neurobiology:  Bringing back biological approach so strong in past few years, can be called revolution  Hebb – behavioural and mental phenomenon related to brain activity directly  Can study fine details of nerve cells, analyze chemicals they use to communicate, see internal structure of a living human being when people are watching or listening or performing CHAPTER 2 Scientific Method: Rules dictating procedure scientists must follow in his or her research Naturalistic/Clinical Observation: people/animal in natural environment or under treatment or diagnosis for psychological condition Correlation Studies: Examine relation between formal measured environmental events of individual’s physical and social characteristics and of their behaviour [observe relations between observations] Experiment: Researcher changes value of independent variable and observe whether the manipulation affects the dependent value, only experiments can confirm cause and effect relations among variables Scientific Method [INDEPENDENT CONTROLLED, DEPENDENT MEASURED] 1. Identify problem and formulate hypothetical cause and effect relations among variables -identify behaviours (particular behaviours and environmental and physiological events) and describe their relation in general terms 2. Design the Experiment -operationally define variables, independant variable must be controlled so that only it is responsible for any changes in the dependant. 3. Perform the Experiment -Randomly assign volunteers/observers to either control or experimental group 4. Evaluate hypothesis by examining data 5. Communicate Results Getting Idea for Research Hypotheses: Tentative statement about a cause and effect relation between two or more events Theories: describes and explains known facts & proposes relations among variables and make new predictions [elaborate form of hypotheses] – within scientific method organize facts and related hypotheses to explain larger aspect of nature Naturalistic/Clinical Observations as Sources for Hypotheses and Theories  Naturalistic – watching behaviours and categorizing them by provoked events and effects of the behaviours would help develop hypothesis that could be tested in experiments or correlation  Case Study: detail description of patients behaviour during course of clinical treatment/diagnosis Designing an Experiment Manipulation: Setting the values of independent variables Experimental/Control Group: E: group exposed to the manipulated variable, C: Group in natural variable Nominal Fallacy: Erroneous belief one has explained event merely by naming it Not all events prior cause, get off train because it’s our stop , not because of person coughing though they both may have happened Operational Definitions  Expectation and ability to detect must be translated into specific operations [ setting, independent, dependent]  Definition of variables in terms of operations the researched performs to measure or manipulate  Need to be completely specific about all conditions and variables to ensure ability to replicate  Validity: Degree of which operational definition of variable accurately reflects variable designed to measure or manipulate [stereogram example – how can we tell they viewed the image nad not just imagined, - point to quadrant to better it] Control of Independent Variable Confounding of Variables: Inadvertent simultaneous manipulation of more than one variable permitting no valid conclusions Flawed Predator Experiment: showing predators to birds in same order over and over showed decreasing caution/alarm with each decrease, FLAW: same order every time, habituation, repeatedly demonstrated stimulus Counterbalancing: systematic variation of conditions in experiment such as presentation of stimuli so participants encounter different orders and prevents habituation/fatigue/confounding Performing of Experiment Reliability of Measurements Reliability: the repeatability of a measurement, likelihood that if measurement made again it’d be same |-> randomly choosing pictures for recognition and some out of focus = unreliable Interrater Reliability: degree to which two or more independent observers agree in ratings of another organism’s behaviour Selecting Participants Participants can be confounded in their own personal characteristics – example of teaching morning and afternoon course, people who enrol in 8a.m. course different than those in 4 p.m. Random Assignment: Solution to confounding participants – procedure in which each participant has equal chance of being assigned to nay conditions or groups of experiment Expectancy Effects Can’t let participants know what the experiment is about or they may act in favour of hypothesis or act different when known what’s being watched – Hawthorne effect Single-Blind Experiments Participants unaware if in control or experimental group Double Blind Experiments Participants unaware of which group they are in, and researcher himself unaware of which group they are in Correlation Studies: examination of relations between two or more measurements of behaviour or other characteristics of people or animals Unmanipulatable studied with this such as [sex, gender, genetic history, etc.] For each person – measure two or more variables as found to exist, determine if related through correlation Correlations don’t necessarily indicate cause and effect, though shyness and daydream may be related, either could have caused the other Matching: selection of participants in groups in experiment or correlation stud to ensure mean values of important variables of groups similar Reporting and Generalizing Study Replication: important to see if conclusions correct – if study and results can be repeated Ethics with Human Subjects Minimize physical or mental harm to participants Maximize benefits of research to participant particular, and to society in general Participants fully informed about nature of research including risks/benefits, informed consent must be voluntary Deception in experiments unacceptable, tolerated in limited circumstances Not intrude into private lives without permission Guarantee anonymity/confidentiality Vulnerable population treated with care [children, prisoners, seriously ill people] Ethics with Animal Subjects Understanding Research Results Descriptive Statistics: mean/median/mode/range/variance/correlation coefficient Measure of Central tendency – statistical measure used to characterized value of items in sample of numbers |-> Mean/Median Measures of Variability : statistical measure to characterize dispersion in values of items in sample of numbers If experimental group and control group mean’s differ – independent variable had an effect – need to make sure number larger than that which can occur by chance Standard Deviation: square root of squared deviations from mean Inferential statistics: mathematical procedure to determine whether relations or differences statistically significant Statistical Significance – likelihood observed relation between two variables exists rather than due to chance Assessment of Differences Between Samples: Large difference = significant, Small difference = chance CHAPTER THREE Darwin’s theory of biological evolution stands primary explanation of origin of life Adaptive significance – the effectiveness of behaviour in aiding organisms to adapt to changing environment Ultimate vs. Proximate Cause – U: events over successive generations P: immediate environmental variables Culture: sum of socially transmitted knowledge, customs, and behaviour over generations Darwin originally in theology, and trained in essentialism The Origin of Species at sea in 1836 Artificial selection: breeding animals deliberately for certain desirable traits Natural Selection: consequence that organisms reproduce differently, within any given population some members will produce more offspring than others  Animals with characteristic to help it survive or adapt to changes is likely to live longer Natural Selection Species are not fixed – change over time Evolution is branching process All species from single common ancestor Evolution continuous with gradual changes, and based on natural selection Survival of fittest – not always physically fit – in humans : charm, looks, intelligence, leads to increased reproductive success – those with that make more offspring than others and their trends to live on more Variation Genotype: organism’s genetic make-up Phenotype: outward expression of genotype – organism’s physical characteristics and behaviour Phenotype = Genotype + environment Heredity and Genetics Darwin’s work unveiled genetics – how genetic makeup influences physical and behavioural characteristics Heredity[determined by DNA]: sum of traits and tendencies inherited from a persons’ parents and other biological ancestors |-> Mendel Basic Principles of Genetics DNA – strands of sugar and phosphate connected by [nucleotides] adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine Gene – location of particular sequence of nucleotides along DNA Genome – total set of genetic material Genes as recipes for Protein Synthesis Genes influence physical and behavioural development through protein synthesis Dopamine – affects learning Enzymes: proteins that regulate bodily cells and processes within Chromosomes and Meiosis Chromosomes: threadlike structures made of DNA found in nucleus of every cell Autosomes: chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes Meiosis: form division by which new sperm and ova formed, new cells rearranged so that new ones contain 23 individual chromosomes not pairs Sex of child depends on man’s sperm having X or Y chromosome Dominant and Recessive Traits Alleles: alternative forms of same gene Homo/Hetero zygous : Same or Different Allele contributed by both parents Dominant Trait: exhibited when individual possess heterozygous alleles Recessive Trait: occurs only when expressed by homozygous alleles Importance of Genetic Diversity Genes manufacture proteins that give rise to physical structure, physiological processes and adaptively significant behaviour that can withstand particular environmental changes Influence of Gender on Heredity Hemophilia (no blood clotting as fast) – occurs in X chromosome, for girls, if other is normal then normal blood clott, if in guys, screwed. Sex-linked/influenced genes: Hemophilia sex linked because it’s in the sex chromosomes Mutation and Chromosomal Aberrations Mutation: accidental alterations in DNA within single gene. Can be spontaneous, occurring naturally or environmental factors |-> Hemophilia – spread through royal blood line Chromosomal Aberration: rearrangement of genes in chromosomes or change in total number |->Cri Du Chat – gastrinol intestine and cardiac problem, severe problems in mental functioning Genetic Disorders st Down syndrome: chromosomal aberration of extra 21 chromosome [impaired physical, psychomotor, cognitive development] not inherited Huntingtons Disease: caused by lethal gene results in degeneration of certain parts of brain – can be passed on Phenylketonuria PKU: homozygous for gene responsible for synthesis of faulty enzyme, renders unable to break down phenylalanine [amino acid] blood levels of phenylalanine increase causing severe brain damage and disruption in mental function Heredity and Genetics Heritability: amount of variability in given trait in given population at
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