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Steve Joordens

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Chapter 3 The Development of evolutionary theory y Survival we are told belongs to fittest whether it is in business sports or even art y Charles Darwin stated that over time organisms originates and become adapted to their environment by biological means y His concept of biological evolution defines changes that take place in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time this is the primary explanation of origin of life y Psychologists have become increasingly aware of the way in which the modern synthesis of Darwins theory along with new discoveries in genetics can help us understand behaviour y Many behavioural difference among organisms both within and across species correspond to genetic and other biological differences y Understanding these differences and their evolution allows psychologists to understand behaviour in terms of its possible origins and adaptive significancey Adaptive significance is defined as its effectiveness in aiding the organism to adapt to changing environmental conditions y When considering novelty some ppl would score high and some ppl would score low If u score high u r considered impulsive excitable and exploratory and if u score low u r considered reflective stoic and slow tempered Is it beneficial to be one of the former or one of the latter y To answer the question above we must first answer two questionso First question what events and conditions in a persons lifetime might contribute to a tendency to seek or to avoid novelty what function does novelty seeking serve in helping ppl adapt to the changing circumstances of life o Second question what events and condition in the evolution of our species favoured or punished novelty seeking served in the history of humankind y A complete understanding of novelty requires that we understand both the past and present conditions that influence it y Psychologists might research how past environmental conditions favoured novleyt sekking over more conservative reactions and how the immediate environment influences day to day choices y Psychologists are interested in both ultimate causes of behaviour and proximal causes y Ultimate causes are defined as the evolutionary conditions that have slowly shaped the behaviour of a species over generations y Proximate causes are defined as immediate environmental events and conditions that affect behaviour y To understand the present we must understand the past the history of the individual and the history of the species y Both biology and environment contribute to our personal development y Evolutionary psychology has emerged since the evolutionary factors in behaviour are become widespread and has made significant contributions to our understanding of behaviour y Evolutionary psychology is defined as the area of psychology investigates how an organisms evolutionary history contributes to the development of behaviour patterns and cognitive strategiesrelated to reproduction and survival during its lifetime y Culture is defined as the sum of socially transmitted knowledge customs and behaviour patterns common to a particular group of ppl y Psychologys contribution to this is how thinking and behaving shape cultural adaptations to changing environmental conditions y Alfred Russell Wallace devised the theory of natural selection at about the same time as Darwin The voyage of the Beagle y Darwin met captain Robert Fitz Roy since the captain was looking for someone to serve as an unpaid naturalist and travelling companion during a five year voyage on board the HMS Beagle y Darwins father allowed him to go however he was nearly rejected by Fitz Roy bc of the shape of his nose apparently the nose was big and ppl with that nose are known not to posses sufficient energy and determination for the voyage y He observed the flora and fauna of South America Australia South Africa and the islands of the Pacific South Atlantic and Indian oceans y He spent most of his time doing what he enjoyed which was collecting y He collected creatures and objects of every sort y He did not form his theory of evolution while on sea y His voyage ended in 1836 The origins of species y Darwin returned to English was still fascinated on how plants and animal have adapted to its environment y He was later interested in the artificial selection which is a procedure in which particular animals are mated to produce offspring who possess especially desirable characteristics
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