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Steve Joordens

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CHAPTER 8: MEMORY OVERVIEW OF MEMORY Memory: the cognitive process of encoding, storing and retrieving information Encoding: the process by which sensory info is converted into form that can be used by the brain’s memory system Storage: the process of maintaining info in memory Retrieval: active processes of locating and using stored info Information latent and inactivated, we don’t think about every restaurant or song every moment of the day Retrieving information is a progressive reactivation Donald Hebb suggested due to the active/latent, that brain remembered info in 2 different ways, this is called dual trace theory Atkinson and Shiffrin suggested memory takes at least three forms: sensory, short-term, long- term. First two are active, last is latent Sensory memory: memory in which representations of physical features of a stimulus are stored for very brief durations Info represents original stimulus accurately and contains all or most of info that was just perceived Function is to hold info long enough to become part of short-term memory Short term memory: an immediate memory for stimuli that have just been perceived. It is limited in terms of capacity(7 +/- 2 chunks) and duration (<20sec) Info soon leaves short term and if not stored in long term, lost forever Can only hold limited amounts in short term, in order to move to long term, memorize, or rehearse them Long term memory: memory in which info is represented on a permanent or near- permanent basis No known limits and is durable Standing showed people could recognize 10000 colour slides weeks after being shown them once SENSORY MEMORY Flash of lightning example, see things before recognize them, we analyze the after image Iconic Memory: form of sensory memory that holds a brief visual image of a scene that has just been perceived; also known as visual persistence Sperling studied this by presenting people set of 9 letters for 50milliseconds and asked them to recall them. The could recall 4 or 5 but insisted they could see them all there but the others faded before they were able to identify them Showed them a chart of 9 letters and asked them to recall only one row, after identifying the row after picture gone, able to do it well, but unable to recall all 9. If delay of telling them what row longer than a second, could only report 50% of the letters Echoic Memory: a form of sensory memory for sounds that have just been perceived Mainly verbal language. When hearing word we have syllables in sensory memory then put them together and transfer to short term. Can last up to 20 seconds SHORT TERM OR WORKING MEMORY Encoding of Information in the Short Term: Interaction with Long-Term Memory Info can enter short term from two directions: sensory and long term. Letters are in our sensory memory, looking away and repeating them keeps them in short term, but the way we repeat them is by calling on their names from long term Fact that short term contains new and recalled info led scientists to prefer working memory: memory for new info and info retrieved from long term. Works on what we just perceived, in fact , represents a sort of behaviour that takes place in our heads, represents ability to remember what we just perceived and think about it in terms of what we already know Use working memory to remember start of sentence before end and to remember no cars are coming when crossing street after looking both ways Primacy and Recency Effects Free recall test: write down as many words as can be recalled after hearing list Most people would be more likely to remember words at beginning and end of list Primacy effect: tendency to remember initial info. Recency Effect: tendency to recall the later information Primacy: words are more rehearsed because they are listed first, Recency: words near end are last to be heard and are still available in short term, so are easier to be recalled Limits of Working Memory Petersons give consonants such as JRG and asked to count down by threes preventing the rehearsal, then asked to recall. When recall disrupted by backward counting, consonants remained available for few seconds. After 15-18 second delay between presentation and recall, recall dropped to zero Stimuli remain in working memory, unless rehearsed, for 20 seconds Muter showed unexpected disruption such as doorbell seriously disrupted working memory. People found it hard to recall three letters after only two seconds Miller (idea of 7 plus or minus 2 chunks) chunking: process by which info is simplified by rules, which make it easily remembered once rules are learned. (i.e. GSTCBCRCMP easier to remember if learned the rule that makes it chunks; GST, CBC, RCMP) Varieties of Working Memory Phonological Working Memory: short term memory for verbal info Short term storage of words presented visually or acoustically Conrad; showed people 6 letters and asked them to remember. Mistakes were acoustic {writing B instead of V but not T instead of F} shows that people read letters and encode them acoustically an remember them by rehearsing the as sounds Subvocal articulation: unvoiced speech utterance People talk to themselves, mouth the words, feel them mouthing it in their head, etc. Best evidence for phonological short term memory comes from conduction aphasia: inability to remember words that are heard, although they can be understood and responded to appropriately. Disability caused by damage to Wernickes and Broca area Visual Working Memory Much of what we have seen is familiar, we have seen particular or similar items before Degroot: showed chessboards to expert players and novices, if pieces corresponded to a game, experts could look away and recall all pieces, novice could not. If not to a game, expert couldn’t make sense of it or remember it any better than novice. Short term memories for positions of a large number of chess pieces relied on organizational rules stored in long term memory Shepard and Metzler: showed people two 3D drawings, one on right rotated, some same some different. People very accurate in judging pictures as being same or different (reported to be done by rotating object in mind to see if it fit) Loss of Information from Short-Term Memory Some info leaving is rehearsed , thought about and modified, some controls ongoing behaviour, some causes changes in long term memory Info has ability to degrade or decay over time Like a juggler juggling plates. As long as you work actively, won’t fall, and small the things, the easier. With more effort can even keep more things in the air. LEARNING AND ENCODING IN LONG-TERM MEMORY Info in short term memory may or may not be available later but once in long term, relatively stable Can learn to recognize objects, sounds, textures, odours, tastes, perceptions from all sensory systems. Also plot of movie, melody of song, a meow signifies a cat. Can also learn from experience, make new responses or use old responses in new situations. Perceptual memories presumable involve altering circuits of neurons in sensory association cortex Memory involves active and passive processes, sometimes we use deliberate strategies to remember something(encode info to long term), other times we observe and remember without any apparent effort and can be formed without being aware The Conditional Hypothesis Can be thought working and sensory memory do not represent places in brain but are result of brain processes that keep it active, once activity subsides, retained only through longer lasting structural changes Consolidation: process by which info in short term memory changes to long term memory, presumably because of physical changes that occur in neurons of the brain Structural changes make info stronger and easier to recall and more resistant to forgetting Rehearsal itself is not consolidation but process that allows it to occur Consolidation may be lengthy and occur without awareness Damage to head like hits and blows can damage memory, it disrupts balance in ions surrounding brain cells and large metabolic changes are caused. Working memory strongly impaired Retrograde amnesia: loss of the ability to retrieve memories of one’s past, particularly memories of episodic or autobiographical events Thought that centre for consolidation damaged with blow to head. More recent memories affected stronger than old ones : predicts memories had less time to be consolidated(weaker, more difficult to retrieve, more susceptible to forgetting) Consolidation of memories require synthesis of proteins (goldfish experiment) IEG (immediate-early genes: Genes that can be activated in the presence of chemicals that inhibit the synthesis of proteins, IEGS therefore do not rely on previous activation of other genes) The Levels of Processing Hypothesis Craik & Lockhart: act of rehearsal keeps info in short term but does not necessarily result in the establishment of long term Two types of rehearsal, maintenance and elaborative Maintenance rehearsal: rote repetition of info repeating item over and over
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