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[PSYB01] Ch. 1-5 Midterm textbook notes

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Anna Nagy

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Ch1 Scientific Understanding of Behavior Used of Research MethodsHelp reading reports critically evaluate methods employed Decide which conclusion is reasonable Different occupations require use of research findings eg Business environmentTo make decision about marketing strategies improve productivity and morale Become more important in making public policy decisions Influence judicial decisions eg Social Science Brief about Brown v Board of Educationconducted by Clark and Clark Study which provide black and white children to choose lightskinned or darkskinned dolls Both black and white children prefer to choose lightskinned doll to play with Influence criminal investigationsImprove accuracy of eyewitness identification Develop and assessing effectiveness of programs designed to achieve certain goals eg Increase retention of students help employees in reducing stress etc The Scientific Approach Limitation of Intuition and Authority Common belief of adoption increases likelihood of pregnancy among couples who are having difficulties conceive child Adoption reduces major source of marital stress stress reduction in turn increases chance of conception Research makes use of Intuition and anecdotal evidence to draw general conclusion about the world Rely on intuition Accept unquestioningly what personal judgment or single story about persons experience Intuitive approach takes many formsInvolves finding explanation for own behaviors or behavior of othersUsed to explain intriguing events that have observed Problem in intuitionNumerous cognitive and motivational biases affect our perceptionsMay draw erroneous conclusion about cause and effectsGilovich points out theres no relationship between adoption and pregnancyIllusory correlation Cognitive bias which occurs when we focus on 2 events that stand out and occur together Likely to occur when we highly motivated to believe in causal relationship Attention is drawn to the situation and biased to conclude there must be a connection Intuition is not scientific scientific approach requires more evidence before conclusion can make Authority Aristotle Concern with the factors associated with persuasion or attitude change Describe relationship between persuasion and credibility PersuasionAchieved by speakers personal character when speech is spoken to make him credible We are likely to be persuaded by speaker who seems prestigious trustworthy and respectable Many people are ready to accept anything they learn from government books and media etc Believing statements that made by authorities must be true Skepticism Science and Empirical Approach Scientific approach recognize both intuition and authority are sources of ideas about behavior Scientists recognize their ideas can be false and very skeptical about what they see and hear They reject intuition and blind acceptance of authority Scientific skepticismIdeas must be evaluated on the basis of careful logic and results from scientific investigations Empiricism Fundamental characteristic of scientific method Knowledge which based on observations Data are collected that form basis of conclusions about the nature of world Goodstein Describes evolved theory of science which defines characteristics of scientific inquiry Elements of Goodsteins theory included1Observations accurately reported to others2 Search of discovery and verification of ideas 3 Open exchange and competition among ideas4Peer Review of research 1 Make observations which can be replicated by other scientists having same results 2 Scientists search for observation that will verify their ideas about the worldBy develop theories argues existing data support their theories conduct research etc 3Science as an open system for exchanging ideasResearch can be disagree and evaluated by othersGood scientific ideas are testable can be reported or can be falsified by data FalsifiabilityFalsifiability Principle that good scientific idea or theory should be capable of being shown to be false when tested using scientific methods 4 Peer review Process of judging the scientific merit of research through review by peers of researcher Or by other scientists with the expertise to evaluate the research Studies have to be reviewed by peers before is published in scientific publications Review process ensure research with major flaws will not become part of scientific literatureIntegrating Intuition Skepticism Authority Advantages of scientific approach Provides objective set of rules for gathering evaluating and reporting information An open systems which allow ideas to be refuted or supported by others Scientists rely on intuition and assertions of authorities for ideas for research Its acceptable to accept assertions of authority as long as do not accept them as scientific evidence Ideas must be evaluated on basis of available evidence that can be used to support or refute ideas Opinions must always can be tested scientifically or whether scientific evidenceAsk scientists about to ensure1 Credentials of individuals The reputation of institution represented by person2 Examine researchers funding source eg Might suspicious when drug company support effectiveness of drug3 Pseudoscientists Using scientific terms to substantiate their claims
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