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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

Putting it All Together  Evaluation, Arousal, and Task Complexity...  Evaluation = reliably evoking arousal  How do they contribute to Social Facilitation and Social Loafing? Group Decision Making Group Polarization  Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the initial inclination of their members o Can be a shift to either greater risk or greater caution o Has both informational and normative explanations  I.e., final decision is EXTREME! Could be a riskier decision or a more conservative than the individuals group members WOULD have made polarize ourselves one way or another to extremes Group Think  “A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ striving for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action” o Extreme form of Group Polarization  Antecedent = “something that comes before”, something that will lead up to the state of group think  Symptoms = things that go on during the decision making process o Mind think – telling people how to think = Mind guards o Self-censorship – some individual think something but don’t come forward (b/c of group think etc)  Consequences = what comes out of it as a result o Incomplete survey of alternative – don’t properly evaluate (or consider) other alternatives possible o People ignore risks o Poor info search - Expectancy confirmation; people make their decision in their group and look for things that ONLY confirm their decision o No contingency plan - Don’t come up with back up plans because they are confident things will go perfectly  Example: exploding whale o Dead whale washed onto shore, tried to disintegrate it with dynamite o Group think!; didn’t predict whale blubber would fall everywhere
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