Chapter 1 1.Self-report data: questionnaires; interviews
Personality Psychology: scientific study of what makes 2.Observation data: from friends or trained observers
us who we are. 3.Test data: see how they behave in a controlled place
Building blocks of personality 4.Life data: count how many times a person’s photo
Traits: person’s typical way of thinking, feeling and appeared in his yearbook…
acting, in various situations and different times. Ethics: researchers need to follow the principle of
Genetics: study of how genes and environment affect respect for persons (people should choose for
personality and behaviour. themselves), and participants should give informed
consent (should know the risks). Researchers must
Neuroscience: study of how our brain and nervous
system affect personality and behavior through bodily follow the principles of beneficence (first, researchers
responses, brain structure, brain activity, and should do no harm to participants) and justice (benefits
biochemical activity and burdens of participants must be shared equitably
Self and Identity: our own sense of who are including among potential research populations), the Common
Rule (researches must establish and maintain an
out self-concept, self-esteem and social identity.
Intrapsychic Foundations of Personality: look within institutional review board – review all research to
ensure it upholds these standards).
ourselves (intra) to our own conscious and feelings
Regulation and Motivation: Focuses on the self-
determination theory (we can and do regulate Chapter 2
Behavioral Residue: physical traces left behind by
ourselves consciously and unconsciously). The building
block of this is concerned with how people adjust their everyday actions that are hints or cues to personality of
responses to the environment.
Cognitive foundations: describes how people perceive What’s not a personality trait: physical attributes,
to think about information, themselves, and the world attitudes, and temporary states (emotions)
Integration: combine building blocks of personality into Traits are measured in a continuum. Traits are a
a whole person. The whole is greater than the sum of its hypothetical concept.
Two Approaches of trait theories:
Scientific Method: rests on empiricism (direct Idiographic Approach: GOAL: understand personality
experience to draw conclusions); describes how to of a single person with all of his quirks (idiosyncrasies)
make and test observations about world in order to and characteristics that makes him unique
draw conclusions while minimizing errors/bias. Steps: Nomothetic Approach: GOAL: discover universals
(concepts that apply to everyone) by identifying traits
identify basic facts, use the facts and make a theory,
make predictions to test theory, and publish results. that can describe all people or applied to anybody.
Allport believed that these work together. He proposed
Observational Studies: observe what people do to
understand a phenomenon to first use a hunch, then seek generalizations, and then
Personality Questionnaire: tests in which people go back to the individual. Allport noticed 3 trait types:
answer questions about themselves that identify certain Central: traits of major importance ion understanding
aspects of their personality. the person (5-10 traits people see in you)
Secondary traits: traits of lesser importance, and
Correlation Coefficient: indicated by r; measures the
relation/co-relation between 2 variables. When 2 displayed less.
variables are correlated, there are three explanations: 1 Cardinal Traits: single traits that dominate a person.
causes 2; 2 causes 1; or there is a 3 variable; Eysenck also believed we could use both approaches by
researchers don’t manipulate variables, they just hypothesizing that human personality is organized into
a hierarchy (General on top, specific on bottom).
measure them. Experiments are different because it
involves the manipulation of an independent variable, Ways to identify Generals:
and they tell us causation. o Theoretical Approach: common wisdom about
Types of data: human personality. o Lexical Approach: explores particular language and and Beta (flexibility to deal with change; Extraversion
identifies the number of synonyms that describe and Openness; actualization).
personalities. Hexaco: the 6 factors are: Honesty-Humility,
o Measurement approach: measure personality Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness,
traits or classify them by using questionnaires. One Conscientiousness, and Openness. Critics believe that
method is factor analysis: statistical technique that Honesty-Humility is just a variation of Agreeableness,
identifies meaningful, underlying structure among and is unnecessary.
a set of variables. Variance between participants is Big Seven: people criticised the Big Five for excluding
called eigenvalue. Using that, we calculate factor
emotional states, because when they are added in,
loadings (estimate of how strongly each question there would be 7 factors: like the Big Five, but with
fits into a given factor; like correlations). Scientists Negative Valence and Positive Valence, which are
rotate factors to try to make sense of the data. useful to understand pathology.
Cattell used it to reduce the number of traits to 16. Big Two: Extraversion and Anxiety, chosen because
From that, people derived the Big Five. This five-
they appear in a lot of places.
factor model has been found in all personality 4 Temparments of Personality: Air (Hopeful), Earth
questionnaire, depends on biology as well, and (Sad), Water (Apathetic), and Fire (Irritable)
they summarize a large number of low level traits.
Earlier models of the Big Five: Chapter 3
Three Superfactors (Eysenck): Psychoticism (tough- You can tell someone’s personality from their
minded or antisocial), Extraversion (how outgoing handshake. Experimenters created a Firm Handshake
people are) and Neuroticism (negative emotionality or
Composite (to measure duration, eye contact,
emotional reactivity). There were also the narrow completeness of grip, strength and vigor) to rate
traits (the more specific ones). One problem was that participants’ handshakes. The participants then
people thought there were some missing traits completed a questionnaire. It was found that men
The Big Five: Conscientiousness (at risk for: poor greeted stronger than women, neurotic people have a
health, organization, short life, ADHD if low, and if
weak handshake (as opposed to a firm one), and
high: workaholics, OCD), Agreeableness (low have a extraverts also had a firmer handshake. For women
risk for cardiovascular disease), Neuroticism (poor only, Openness can be determined by the firmness.
stress reactions, get burnout faster), Extraversion (not Cognitive ability is usually not considered personality
at risk), Openness (not at risk) (CANOE). According to traits, but is intelligence? No because:
the NEO (Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness;
Intelligence already fits within the Openness and
this order reflects the variance) personality inventory, Conscientious scales.
these factors have 6 subscales (Facets). When people self-rate as intelligent, they really mean
Big Five vs. FFM: Big Five: Surgency (extraversion), hard-working, motivated… not IQ intelligent, so this
Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability and Culture type also fits on the Conscientious scale.
(openness) are in order of most words available as
There’s evidence of individual differences in how
descriptions. FFM: CANOE, no specific order, but these people perceive information about the world (aka
focus on biological relations to the traits. Big Five is
lexical and FFM is questionnaires. IQ is a different, controversial topic, that cannot apply
General Personality Factor (GPF): explains all human to personality
personality in much the same way that g represents a Other ‘traits’ the Big Five missed out on: Religious, Sly,
general factor of intelligence underlying all mental Honest, Sensual, Frugal (cheap), Conservative,
abilities. This factor includes all positive aspects of the
Masculine-Feminine, Egotistical, Witty, Risk-taker
5 factors. It encompasses the Alpha (emotional Is spirituality a trait? Many people argue that no, it’s a
stability to get along with others; Emotional Stability, secondary trait (it correlates to factors of the Big Five),
Agreeableness and Conscientiousness; socialization) but isn’t a trait in itself. Spiritual Transcendence: ability to stand outside of their immediate sense of time and 2. Adjectival measures of the Big Five reveal variations of
place to view life from a larger, objective perspective. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness and
This is beyond any religion, so Piedmont created the Conscientiousness but not Openness in many cultures
Spiritual Transcendence Scale (STS; have 2 facets: 3. Openness varies across cultures because lexical
Connectedness, Prayer Fulfilment and Universality). models find it to be language and culture specific since
Through factor analysis, it was found that this is a 6h different cultures believe openness in different ways.
variable. Spiritual Transcendence and personality The feeling of chills is universal, but what gives us
predicted life things too: health issues, vulnerable to chills is culture-dependent.
stress, responsiveness, perceived social support, pro- 4. In some cultures, more than 5 factors are needed to
social behavior, positive sex attitudes and prochoice or fully describe personality.
prolife attitudes. 5. We need more research on indigenous personality to
Is sexuality a personality trait? Words used to describe truly understand which aspects of personality are
sexuality or gender differences were purposely universal and which are unique.
removed from lexical studies to omit individual Cheung developed the Chinese Personality Assessment
differences. Schmitt factor-analyzed words describing Inventory (CPAI) and found 4 factors that differed:
sexuality (lexical approach from dictionaries) and found Dependability: responsibility, practical mindedness
the Sexy Seven: Sexual attractiveness, Relationship and graciousness
exclusivity, Gender Orientation, Sexual Restraint, Chinese Tradition: Harmony, Ren Qing (traditional
Erotophilic Disposition, Emotional Investment and
relationship orientation emphasizing give and take
Sexual Orientation. When factor-analyzed with the Big and connectedness), and Face (reputations)
Five, there were only 5 factors, meaning that sexuality is Social Potency: Leadership, adventurousness
just another way to express the Big Five, but not Individualism: self-orientation, logical and Ah-Q
actually separate. mentality (defensiveness)
Philotimo: a person who is generous, responsible, When those were factor-analyzed with the Chinese
respectful and with a good sense of humor (Greek) version of NEO-PI-R, there were 6 factors: the Big 5 and
Filial Piety: a person who takes care of physical and
an indigenous one called Interpersonal Relatedness
mental issues of their old parents, brings honour to (Harmony, Ren Qing, Ah-Q, and Face). When the test
them and continues the family line (Chinese). was applied to the non-Chinese, it only showed the Big
Amae: a person whom others depend on, and has a five, showing the uniqueness of that factor.
strong sense of obligation to take care of others Triangulation: using multiple methods within a single
(Japanese; in the west it’s a relationship between
program of research, so that each method compensates
parent and child, there, it’s a relationship between for the weakness of the others. Types of Data:
lower and higher classes). o Self-report data (S data): from questionnaires or
Others: Korean cheong (human affection), Indian personality tests
Hishkama Karma (detachment), Mexican simpatia o Test data (T data): information from testing
(avoidance of conflict), and Filipino Pakikisama (going
situations like intelligence tests, reaction times, or
along with others. These are indigenous personality task persistence. These are experimental and
traits (originating in another language) that go beyond objective (i.e. TAT or Inkblot test or Implicit
the Big Five because the Big Five was only sampled from Association tests).
Americans. o Observation data (O data): watching people in lab
Researching personality traits across various cultures
or in daily lives. This deals with the problem of bias
helped identify human universals in personality and or memory problems in S data
understanding impact of a culture on personality: o Life data (L data): track down information about a
1. Questionnaire measures of FFM reliably replicate person that is publicly available: graduating,
across many cultures and languages. marriage, moving, SES… People studied presidents’ lives to understand what it Personality coherence: when underlying trait stays the
takes to be a president. They did this by gathering same but the way it’s expressed changes. ‘Thrill seeking’
people who knew the president well, and asked them to in a 6-year-old is riding a bike in the neighborhood, but
fill the NEO test as though they were him, before is extreme sports in a 16-year-old. It’s a type of
election. They found that presidents were usually more continuity.
extraverted, less open to experience and less agreeable. Longitudinal Studies: study people across their lives.
‘Great presidents’ were found to be more open, which Mean-level change (general change; change that affects
meant smarter. They tend to score low on morality and everybody as we grow out of infancy to adulthood) vs.
compassion. individual change (people change in their own unique
To find how music fits in, researchers created the way). Metaphor: people are like boats: we sit on the
STPOMP (shot test of music preferences), then factor- ocean on different levels depending on shape, size… this
analyzed it to find general factors. Then, the same is the individual change. When a tide hits, all the boats
students took the Big Fiver Inventory Test to see rise, and this is mean-level change.
personalities, and both tests were examined for The traits all peak at age 50. In other words, the child is
correlations. Results show that father to the man.
o There are no gender differences in music. Meta-analysis: statistical summary of effects from other
o Chronic Illnesses (depression) had no correlation cases. One of these by DelVecchio came to 2
with music. conclusions: stability increases over a lifetime and traits
o Different personalities did actually like different measured closer in time are more similar than traits
music types. measured across longer periods. This shows that
The types of music and how they relate to the Big Five: personality is consistent, but not unchanging.
Reflective and Complex Music: blues, folk, classical, Normative change: similar changes in personality that
jazz. If you were high on Neuroticism, you didn`t like affect everybody (the tide in the above metaphor)
this emotionally stable liked this. These people A certain amount of change in personality is
were high on Openness open people liked it. maturation: we develop higher levels of assertiveness,
Energetic and Rhythmic: funk, hip hop, rap, soul, self-control, responsibility and emotional stability.
electronica. If you like this, you’re high on Extraversion There are 6 factors that change: openness and social
Intense and Rebellious: Alternative, heavy metal and vitality decrease, whereas extraversion,
rock. If you like this, you were high to openness, but conscientiousness, agreeableness and emotional
aren’t so agreeable or conscientious stability increase.
People develop in their personalities because of what
Upbeat and Conventional: pop, country, religious. If
you’re here, are high on extraversion, agreeableness they’ve been through. This means that people with
and conscientiousness, but are low on openness. more negative experiences will become more neurotic.
Personalities and web pages? They reveal the owner’s Temperaments: individual differences. Those are found
true self as well as their idea of impression in children and emerge during the first year of life. This
is what predicts what personalities adults will develop.
People and careers? Astronauts are high on Chapter 4
conscientiousness, Agreeableness, but low on What Makes a Good Personality Test?
Neuroticism. Professionals (doctors, teachers, Personality assessment: measurement of individual
engineers…) had to be high on extraversion, Openness characteristics of a person.
We need scientific processes because otherwise, we
Personality Development: might give tests that are too general that they describe
Development: continuity and change in personality; everybody, and people will believe these (Barnum
continuity: consistency, amount of a trait stays the Effect).
same; change: amount of trait is different. Reliability (estimate of how consistent a test is) is a
prerequisite for validity. Types: Temporal Consistency Reliability: (across time) Personality Tests:
respondents take the test a second time to see if their Types:
scores are similar. This is aka test-retest reliability. Self-report: aka objective tests: respondents answer
One thing is to make sure that participants are not questions about themselves. These use a dichotomous
merely remembering the test, and we can do this by forced-choice format (present respondents with a
separating the two tests with time. limited number of choices, rather than scale. E.g. true-
Internal Consistency reliability: (across items) false questions or pick one of the following questions),
different elements of the test should produce the a Likert rating scale (ask participants to rate
agreement, degree, similarity or frequency on a scale)
same result. Early on, psychologists used the parallel-
forms reliability (they had 2 versions of a test and or an Adjective Check List.
looked to see if they produced sam