Chapter7 fMRI (traces blood oxygen levels to determine activity
What is Neuroscience and How Do We Study it? levels). A problem with fMRI is that when viewing a
One way to be healthier and happier is to meditate. It stimulus, we think about it within milliseconds, but
changes how your brain works. So does personality do blood flow takes 2 seconds. A 2 problem is that it’s
this too? time intensive and expensive, so there are only a
The nervous system is made of the central nervous limited number of participants (higher chance of
system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral error). 3 problem is the non-independence error
nervous system (PNS; somatic – movements of muscle (researchers may unintentionally bias their results by
– and autonomic – smooth and cardiac muscle, glands). not independently selecting which brain areas to
The autonomic nervous system divides energy for correlate with variables). 4 time of day and
sympathetic (fight or flight situations)/parasympathetic nervousness of participants may influence results. A
(replenish body: salivation and digestion). distinct technique for measuring activity is TMS
Brain is protected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that flows (electric current passes through a coil placed on the
through spaces in the brain (ventricle). head and the magnetic field disrupts regular activity of
Researches hypothesize that differences in bodily neurons in that area).
responses, brain structure, brain activity and Biochemical activity: we might analyze cerebrospinal
biochemical activity are all related to individual fluid, blood, saliva or urine to monitor levels of
differences in personality.
neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons to
Bodily Responses: the body’s responses to inhibit or excite next neuron), hormones or drugs.
environment are caused by the autonomic system. Sometimes it’s difficult to directly measure levels of a
The galvanic skin response (GSR) measure skin neurotransmitter, so then you measure its by-product.
conductance or how quickly a slight electrical current Another way is to use the challenge test (researchers
passes through 2 points on the skin (the faster, the administer a drug that’s known to either increase or
more moisture, the greater arousal). The decrease neurotransmitter’s functioning and monitor
electromyography (EMG) measure muscle activity and the impact of the new substance).
estimates electric impulses of muscle during Neurological Theories of Personality
contraction and relaxation. It estimates electrical Temperament: personality characteristics that are:
impulses of muscle during contraction and relaxation o Relatively stable across life span
and is often used in biofeedback so people can learn o Expressed through general energy level
to relax their muscles. Others are cardiovascular o Present from early childhood
measurements (heart rate/blood flow/ blood o Similar in other species of animals.
pressure) and respiratory functions. o Present at birth
Brain Structure: Researchers also study the differences o Determined by genetic factors
in weight and size of parts of the brain. We can dissect o Changeable with maturation and experience
the brain, for cytological (cell) studies, use CT scans (X- For biological basis, all major theories converge on 3
rays of brain), or MRI (radio frequency waves instead temperaments: Extraversion (positive, reward-sensitive,
of X-rays). social, approachable), Neuroticism (negative, anxiety,
Brain Activity: Differences can be pinpointed also punishment-sensitive, withdrawn), and Impulsivity
(psychotic, lack of constraint, sensation-seeker, lack of
through activity of a person’s brain as they engage in
mental tasks. This can be done with cortical conscientiousness and agreeableness).
stimulation (invasive), or EEG (electrodes placed on Eysenck wanted to create a theory that both explains
scalp to monitor electrical activity and finds evoked how people developed personalities as well as predict
potentials – response by autonomic nervous system the personalities. He studied normal and psychiatric
as seen through electric currents). PET scans use patients and found Psychoticism, Extraversion and
radioactive glucose which is traced throughout the Neuroticism (PEN). Extraversion is how outgoing people
active brain regions. The best way though is through are, Neuroticism is how emotionally unstable people are, and Psychoticism is how manipulative and (extreme: mania and high-risk impulsive behaviors).
antisocial people are. Evidence to support his theory This is similar to extraversion.
comes from: (1) cross-cultural universality in traits that Behavioral Inhibition System: inhibits behavior or
implies a strong biological component, (2) people show resolves conflict (2 one is modern view). It’s
great consistency in these 3 traits despite activated when there’s a conflict between the other
environmental changes (shows it’s biological too), and systems, and until the conflict is resolved, we may feel
(3) the 3 traits have some sort of heritability. There are worried, anxious, in risk, or sense possible danger
clear biological explanations for Neuroticism and (extreme: OCD or GAD). When this is activated, people
Extraversion but not psychoticism: become more sensitive to punishment. There is an
Neurology of Extraversion: the main difference optimal level, otherwise we’re either to prone to risks,
between levels of extraversion was arousal. Eysenck or too scared of it. This is similar to BIS
thought introverts had greater cortical arousal in the What this suggests is that our inherent behavioral
ascending reticular activating system (ARAS; pathway systems (FFFS, BAS, and BIS) predispose us to respond
transmitting signals from limbic system and to punishments/rewards, but experiences refine our
hypothalamus to cortex; related to alertness and personalities. The neurology of the systems: We have a
being mentally alert). Introverts avoid situations that lot of evidence, but some of it is inconclusive (we don’t
would aggravate their already overstimulated ARAS. know if that’s because of the theory itself or because
Extraverts are the opposite, so in that way, both are we can’t operationalize the terms well). An experiment:
trying to find their optimal level of arousal. This If BAS is related to rewards, one reward for all humans
hypothesis was tested and FAILED. However, there is food. So the prediction would be that people with
was a difference in their arousability (sensory different BAS strengths would react differently for
reactivity). So they don`t actually have different images of food. This reward is good because it isn’t
natural arousal levels, just different reactions. related to fun-seeking activities (so we can be sure it’s
Neurology of neuroticism: Eysenck thought just BAS, not BIS too). Participants with strong BAS had
neuroticism had to do with the stability of the stronger reactions. Another point with another
sympathetic nervous system (like the hippocampus, experiment is that people with strong BAS get
amygdala, cingulum, hypothalamus and septum). conditioned faster when there’s a potential for earning
Neurotic trait was due to an extrasensitive emotional a reward, while people with strong BIS learn faster
system. when there’s a potential for avoiding a punishment.
Another theory was proposed by Gray. He believed Then and Now: Phrenology
personality is the variation in the functioning of brain Phrenology (study of brain structure) started with Gall.
system. He wanted to identify individual differences in His only right point was that certain functions of the
brain-behavior systems and link them to standard brain were localized in cerebral cortex. Other than that
measures of personality. Research showed 3 (size of bumps matters…), he was wrong. He also
neurological systems based on the reinforcement inspired Combe who discovered that by pressing on an
sensitivity theory (systems exist based on evidence exposed part of the cortex, blood came out of it, and
from neurology, physiology, behavior and personality the patient’s behavior changed. The blood part led to
and we can infer neural activity from them): the creation of fMRI. One type of fMRI is DTI (diffusion
Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS): associated with tensor imaging) which traces water in cells.
fear and is responsible to our reactions in aversive Neurological Correlates of Personality
Positive emotions and negative ones are not opposites,
stimuli. The matching personality factor is fearfulness
and avoidance (extreme: phobia and panic disorder) they’re separate dimensions. Being high in one doesn’t
Behavioral Approach System: responsible for mean you’ll be low in the other. Absence of positive
appetitive stimuli; those that are pleasurable. It makes emotions is not negative emotions, it’s anhedonia
people more sensitive to reward. The matching (inability to experience pleasure). That’s why there are
neurotic extraverts. Impulsivity involves lack of
personality factors are optimism and impulsiveness constraint or a state of being undercontrolled. It’s through different kinds of experiments), (2) boredom-
different than Eysenck’s psychoticism because susceptibility (need for change and variety and aversion
psychoticism involves higher-order categories too, to routine and sameness), (3) thrill and adventure
including antisocial aspects. Also, impulsivity involves seeking (arousal seeking through physical sensations),
other things like sensation-seeking. According to RST, and (4) disinhibition (extent to which people have
impulsivity is due to failure of the BIS system to inhibit lowered social inhibitions and enjoy letting loose in
behavior, or a strong BAS. company of others; partying, sex, alcohol). Usually
Extraversion: Neuroticism: impulsive people are males and are in their 20’s. They
enjoy drinking, loud music, illegal behavior and stressful
Cortex: extraverts have Cortex: neurotics have less
less grey matter in right grey matter in left jobs (that cause new experiences). Sensation seekers
react differently to new stimuli: they habituate faster,
hemisphere. It may hemisphere. So,
mean lessened social neuroticism is not related have greater pain tolerance, higher extraversion, less
inhibition or efficient to extraversion. hypochondriasis, and higher sensory thresholds.
Sensation-seeking is also related to dopamine reactivity
socialization. Amygdala: neurotics have
Amygdala: Extraverts less grey matter in the (increases exploration of novel stimuli), low serotonin
(fails to inhibit behavior, and low norepinephrine
have more grey matter right amygdala. Due to the
in left amygdala. relation to depression, this (lessens stress response to stimuli).
Extraverts also show shows that the reduction Chapter 8
more activity in the in amygdala happens
amygdala before depression. No Background
Freud believed that just as the body carries out its
Functional: while looking different activity for
at happy pictures, neuroticism probably functions with energy, so does the mind carries out its
functions with psychic energy (which fueled the
extraverts showed because detecting threat is
higher activity in so important that it is functions of the mind). The answer to the mind-body
temporal and frontal present in all, regardless of problem was instincts (or impulses; a tension
originating from within the body). According to him,
Biochemistry: dopamine. Functional: while looking at there are 2 categories of instinct: Eros (life impulses;
include survival instincts; their life energy is called
Introverts are more sad pictures, high neurotics
sensitive to fluctuations showed higher activity in libido; the most important is sex) and Thanatos (death
in this, but extraverts temporal and frontal instincts; not a developed theory, but the only example
he provided was aggression; not agreed upon today
have greater activity. It cortex.
makes sense since the Biochemistry: serotonin. because it doesn’t fit in with evolution). Freud believed
that we don’t act in sexual/aggressive acts because we
dopamine system is Less serotonin means
connected to amygdala, higher neuroticism, since have been socialized to hide them. Since we can’t just
destroy libido (it follows the law of conservation of
which is more active in serotonin regulates moods. mass), it manifests itself in unconscious ways. This can
be uncovered through:
Left-right asymmetries: people differ in how large the Free association: patient relaxes and is asked to speak
relative differences in both hemispheres are; present as whatever comes to mind without consciously trying to
early as first year in life. You may have left symmetry control it. People need to be relaxed (not necessarily
(your left responds more to positive thoughts than your hypnotized) to do this.
right responds to negative ones). Dream analysis: detailed examination of content and
Sensation-seeking: seeking of new, complex, or intense symbolism of dreams in order to decipher their hidden
sensations and willingness to take risks for their sake. It and unconscious meaning. Because it’s still dangerous
is measured with a scale that has 4 subscales: (1) for dark urges to reveal themselves, they use manifest
experience-seeking (desire for moderate arousal content (the superficial dream meaning, used to symbolically express the latent content – actual dark reality principle (tries to satisfy id within the
meaning – in a dream). An experiment regarding constraints of physical and social limits). This uses
dream analysis found that Freud was right in that secondary process thinking (logical thinking; weighing
suppressed thoughts do come out in dreams, but costs of superego and benefits for id). The superego
showed that no matter the emotion associated with strives for unrealistic perfection and contains society’s
the thoughts, they were still likely to appear in the expectations that we learnt from parents as we were
dream (due to cognitive ironic processes of mental growing up. It has 2 parts:
control, and not unconscious motivations). o The conscience (not conscious): knowledge of what
Parapraxes: mistakes in speaking and acting. One type you should not do. The punishments come in forms
is a Freudian Slip: mistake in speech that reveal of feelings of guilt, embarrassment or shame.
hidden unconscious desires. Yet, research shows that o Ego ideal: knowledge of what we should do.
people may also slip due to priming from whatever is Rewards are feelings of pride.
on their mind (not just id impulses). This model will be most likely abandoned soon, since
there’s no evidence that some parts of our personality
Humor: even jokes can be analyzed much like dreams.
Symbolic Behaviors: actions that seem innocent on are more logical than others. The one thing to take is
the surface but actually represent deeper motives. that there are conflicts, and behavior is truly a
Then and Now compromise between conscience , reality, desires, and
Word association method: used by most psychologists social responsibility.
to identify connections people made between words, The topographic model: the conscious mind (thoughts
but Jung (Freud’s disciple) used it to identify that we are currently aware of), the preconscious
unconscious complexes (important concerns for a mind (thoughts that are just outside; we can easily
person that he or she may not be aware of; aka known summon them) and the unconscious mind (thoughts
as schemas and are patterns of thoughts, memories, that we cannot reach by ourselves).The unconscious is
and perceptions organized around a theme). also called the motivated unconscious (the
The implicit Association Test (IAT) is an assessment unconscious can produce thoughts, feelings or
technique that measures reaction times in order to defenses in us related to our impulses). Freud didn’t
reveal any hidden thoughts. It measures the strength of think of these as separate ‘rooms’ but as continuity of
associations between concepts (the more related, the mental life. Freud was right here: (1) there is a
easier it will be to sort them). continuum (so they’re processes not places), (2)
Freud’s View unconscious influences conscious decisions, and (3)
Freud used a structural model that described cognitive unconscious (current model of the
personality and a topographical model that described unconscious) is motivated and driven (not by id
regions in our mind where parts of personality reside. desires) but by our thoughts without all the ‘drama’.
Structural Model: made up of the id, ego and Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms
superego. Id operates through primary process Anxiety may come out in physical symptoms
(conversion disorders) or in psychological symptoms
thinking (it makes decisions without logical rules and
conscious though) and is based on the pleasure (phobia, anxiety). Other than that, the ego may use
principle (requires immediate gratification). There are defense mechanisms to protect itself:
2 ways to satisfy id: Reaction Formation: instead of expressing a
o Reflex Action: when id seeks immediate physical threatening id impulse, you express the opposite (e.g.
homophobics may actually be ashamed homosexuals).
gratification (body part of the mind-body problem)
o Wish Fulfillment: id seeks gratification by There is strong evidence for its existence, but we don’t
imagining what it wants (the mind part; usually know yet if it’s unconscious or not
happens when reflex action is not appropriate). Isolation: mentally isolate a threatening thought by
It’s the job of the ego to satisfy the id as much as keeping it separate from other thoughts or feelings.
possible (through identification). The ego follows the One form is intellectualization (isolate the emotion so ou can experience memories without the disturbing These all can be classified into 3 categories: the
feelings. Isolation has a lot to do with cognition transformation can be of the impulse, the target or the
because by blocking one negative thought, you person feeling the impulse.
prevent descending into more negative feelings. Vicissitudes: changing nature of the instinct.
Denial: refuse to believe a threatening or traumatic Psychosexual Stages
event. Denial is useful in the short-run, but not in the Adult personalities emerge from childhood ones.
long one. Development starts with a libidinal urge in a specific
Undoing: person who either thought about doing or erogenous zone (biologically determined part of the
body). The tension builds up there and must be satisfied
already performed an unacceptable act tries to nullify
the act with another. One example is eating disorder so the tension subsides and the child can move on. If
where woman eats and then purges to undo the too much or too little gratification occurs, part of the
eating, or abuse, where man brings flower to wife to child will have to stay behind to deal with this, thus
undo the abuse. Counterfactual rumination (thinking detracting from future resources for other stages
(fixation). People fixated at one stage will show adult
about a past event and how you could have acted
differently also ‘nullifies’ the event) is a type of personalities related to the fixation. There will be both
undoing, but it ends up making people feel worse bodily (in erogenous zone) and mind (symbolic)
(that’s why 2 place are sadder than 3 place). It’s activities. Freud believed we`re born with an id, at 2
viewed as a coping, not defense, mechanism because years develop ego and at 5 develop superego (which
means our personality is complete). Stages:
it helps in improving in the future, but doesn’t protect.
Projection: attribute our own understanding to Oral: birth-18 months. Life is about feeding so the
another person. What we find annoying in other erogenous zone is mouth. If the child takes too much
people is more revealing of out insecurities. Research or too little pleasure in sucking/biting, he’ll develop a
shows that not thinking about an undesirable train fixation. If inappropriate gratification occurs too early,
makes it more likely for you to project it on others. he develops oral incorporative personality (body:
Current research shows that we see these traits in excessive eating, drinking, smoking or kissing; mind:
others not because we are trying to hide them from dependent, gullible, good listener, and collector), but
ourselves, but because of thought suppression (one if it occurred later, he develops an oral sadistic
type of ironic cognitive processes). personality (body: chewing gum, nail-biting,
Displacement: the true id impulse is expressed, but overeating; mind: aggressive, sarcastic, cynic, mean)
the target is changed to a more acceptable one. Anal: 1-3 years. Life is about being potty-trained. This
is the first time child should adhere to social
Catharsis: release of id energy after tension had been
building up; acting or viewing aggression is thought to expectations. How the child reacts to the monitoring
satisfy this. However, experiments show that acting of the parents affects his personality. If he just poops
aggressively actually increases later aggression. everywhere and anywhere, he’ll develop anal
Sublimation: change impulse into something more expulsive personality (body: bed-wetting, lack of
sphincter control; mind: confident, nonconventional,
acceptable. This defense mechanism has no
experimental and correlation support. resisting authority, overly generous and creative). If he
Repression: rejecting and keeping something out of reacts by refusing to go, he’ll develop anal retentive
conscience (it’s different than suppression in that personality (body: anal problems, constipation; mind:
suppression is conscious but repression isn’t).People rigid, compulsive, lives up to expectations, stingy,
organized, perfectionist, stubborn). Today we know
don’t forget about the anxiety-provoking events
though. that physical bowel ailments are actual body
disorders, not personality-related.
Rationalization: people re-interpret their behavior to
hide true motivations for their actions. This has to do Phallic: 2-5 years, happens after discovery of genitals.
with cognitive dissonance where we try to justify what This is the most complicated stage (beware). This is
we did so we don’t feel bad. This has a lot of evidence. when Oedipus Complex (wanting to marry your mom and hating your dad for being her love – if you`re a examining children as they grew. So it’s based on biased
guy) develops and must be resolved. Boys also notice methods and sampling
girls don`t have penises, and start to develop Freud’s Oedipus’ Complex is also wrong because he
castration anxiety (fear of having their penises assumed children 2-5 knew more than they actually do.
removed and being a girl, probably because the father Children in this age range actually don’t know enough to
– the `rival`- may notice their love to mother). So, he feel superior or inferior.
decides he should repress love to mom and hate to Boys and girls don’t differ in morality and they both
dad so he can keep his penis. He also begins to identify develop morality sooner than Freud imagined.
with dad. This way, he uses id wish fulfillment to His whole theory of psychosexual development is based
imagine he`s with mom (like his dad), as well as on the idea of sexual fantasies, but it might be that his
superego develops, based on his dad. If child doesn`t patients weren’t just remembering fantasies, but actual
learn to identify with dad, he develops phallic sexual assaults. Empirical evidence doesn’t support the
character (overly exaggerated sense of masculinity or Freud’s psychosexual development theory.
machisimo; mind chooses hobbies that show his Research Methods
masculinity: power tools, trucks, large machines…). As Case study (aka psychobiography in psychology): in-
for girls, they also start with a love to mom (she`s the depth study of one person. Cons: can’t generalize, and
source of food and care) but slowly realize that boys can’t prove causality. Pros: create hypotheses; logic is
have penises and they don`t and then they develop inductive (start from one instance to general principle);
penis envy (“penis is big compared to their genitals, so support theory. Success of case studies depends on
boys must be more superior, I wish I had a penis”). choice of subject and thoroughness of researcher.
The girl reasons the only person close to cut it off is Psychodynamic Theory since Freud
her mother and at the same time she is attracted to Neo-Freudians: people who broke off from Freud and
her dad but is jealous that he has a penis. One way to developed similar theories: Jung, Adler, Horney… They
get rid of this is for the girl to grow up and have a male objected to Freud’s id psychology and created the ego
baby who resembles her dad. Because girls have no psychology (including Freud’s own daughter). These
way of identifying with their dad, they can’t develop theories include object relations theory (cognitive and
superego (so they’re with no morals), and because of emotional processes involved in intimate relationships;
this (not lack of penis) are women inferior to men. focus on actual relations, not fantasy), relational theory,
Women fixated here develop hysterical character and self-psychology, and they placed more emphasis on
(exaggerated femininity, flirtatious, promiscuous). mental representations of the self and less on sex and
Latency: 5-puberty. Freud believed that no aggression. Contemporary psychoanalysis is the part of
development happens here because child’s id is Freud’s psychoanalysis that was scientifically proven:
preoccupied with school, same-sex friends… Much of our thoughts are unconscious
(Sublimation) to be thinking about sex. We now know Part of being human is recognizing that we have
this is wrong because that’s when most development conflicting thoughts, and behavior is an imperfect
happens. compromise. Our unconscious is also more rational
Genital: puberty and on. Freud believed if people than Freud thought, but our feelings influence our
passed all the other stages, they can be considered cognitions more than cognitivists thought
normal adults. This would mean you’re heterosexual Personality begins from childhood but continues to
marry, have kids, and be a self-sufficient member of adulthood. Childhood experiences are still important
society (‘to love and to work’). If you did have
Mental representations of self, others and relations
problems, you should go to psychotherapy. are important in that the way we form later relations
Critiquing Freud Personality development and growth involves moving
He developed these theories by studying his adult from immature dependence to mature independence.
patients who recalled their childhoods, not by actually Attachment Theory Attachment theory is a type of contemporary There’s also evidence that attachment styles are
psychoanalysis. It talks about personality, close relations generational (parent’s attachment will become child’s
and development. In hospitals in the 20 century, attachment style).
children were left isolated, only had physical needs People with different attachment styles thought about
taken care of. Bowlby saw this and was disturbed at the love differently too (based on the internal working
lack of care to the emotional needs. The children there model for others which resembles that of their mother):
first went through protest (crying to prevent mum from secure attachment experienced ‘normal’, happy love;
leaving), then despair (sad, passive, and hopeless that avoidant experienced fear of intimacy; and anxious-
mum would return) and finally detachment at her ambivalent experienced obsessions.
return. Some children came back to normal later, and Attachment styles were also researched on couples.
others didn’t. Bowlby created the internal working Instead of the Strange Situation, the couples were
models (child who trusts in mom is less fearful, the observed as they separated at the airport. Results:
confidence builds up until adolescence and remains More attachment behaviors in separating couples
constant in adulthood, and these also reflect future
than in non-separating ones.
experiences). We have to internal working models: one Longer-term couples showed less attachment
for relations (comes from mom) and other for ourselves behaviors
(from feelings of lovability…). Ainsworth continued on Gender had a relation with the attachment style:
Bowlby’s theory and developed Strange Situation women with anxiety reported more distress (even
(observe mother-child interactions, then separate mom
though they didn’t show different behaviors). Women
to see how child reacts). This was able to show relations with avoidant styles avoided contact with partner.
between mother’s sensitivity and responsiveness to the Men with anxiety showed less contact but men with
child’s attachment. The mother’s sensitivity to infant avoidant showed no specific behavior.
plays a greater role than the child’s temperament. Secure adults are more likely to experience Rogers’ fully
Ainsworth identified these types: functioning behaviors: openness to new experiences,
o Secure Attachment: children of sensitive- trust in oneself and the world, lack of fear of
responsive mothers; children were more obedient disapproval, experience thoughts deeply, sensitive and
and socialized. Mother was their secure base and responsive to others’ needs, and volunteering in
safe haven community.
o Avoidant attachment: children to mothers who
didn’t show physical contact; children were Chapter 9
oblivious to their mother’s departure and didn’t Three Fundamental Psychological Needs
look to her as the safe haven. They looked like they Self-Determination theory: when we are extrinsically
didn’t care, but their physiological measures motivated (with some external pressures like rewards
showed they did secretly (their hearts beat as fast or punishments), we may not enjoy the activity,
as those with secure attachment). perform out best or continue the behavior, yet when
o Anxious-ambivalent attachment: children whose
we are intrinsically motivated (acting based on our own
mothers showed mixed signals or were insensitive; desires), we enjoy things more; why we do something is
the children didn’t explore much and they were more important than what we do. The theory is
generally anxious in and out of her presence. grounded in the humanistic tradition (emphasis on
o Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: children responsibility, growth and actualization – motive to
whose parents show that they themselves are
bring about growth and positive change). Other than
afraid or worried. Children don’t know how to physical needs, humans have 3 fundamental
approach parents, and so don’t socialize. psychological (important) needs:
Attachment at an early age and at later life has r=.39 Autonomy: individuals must feel that they can choose
(pretty large). These remain generally constant unless a freely (what to pursue) instead of being pushed
life-changing event occurs (death/separation/threats…).
around or forced by other people or situations. Competence: feeling effective in one’s actions and of causality (aka autonomy): describes relation between
having opportunities and experiences to exercise, choice and behavior (how free are people in choosing
expand and express one’s abilities. their behaviors).
Competence and Self-Efficacy: Self-efficacy: belief that
Relatedness: feeling connected to others, having
people to care for and to receive care from. one can be competent and effective at some activity.
When these 3 are met, people will feel more There are 2 parts to it: (1) outcome expectation (belief
intrinsically motivated, perform well and build skills to that behaving in a certain way will produce a certain
increase their well-being. outcome) and (2) efficacy expectation (belief that one
is capable of acting in a certain way; will he pass/fail?).
How Do We Satisfy These Needs
Fostering Autonomy – Autonomy Support: one way is to Ways to build up efficacy: experience, vicarious learning
provide choices (if a child doesn’t want vegetables, (observing others), social persuasion (people might
being supportive instead of controlling is to ask them convince you that you can or can’t do something), and
“do you want carrots or broccoli?” instead of “eat your physical/emotional states (how we felt when we did
something will affect how we think about our ability in
vegetables). Another way is to encourage initiative (give
people a chance for themselves to see what/how they performing it again).
want to do something). Relatedness and Attachment theory: Relatedness in the
Fostering Competence – Structure and Optimal self-determination theory is derived from the
Challenge: people need tasks that are aimed at the right attachment theory and both recognize the fundamental