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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB30H3
Professor
Connie Boudens
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter7 fMRI (traces blood oxygen levels to determine activity What is Neuroscience and How Do We Study it? levels). A problem with fMRI is that when viewing a One way to be healthier and happier is to meditate. It stimulus, we think about it within milliseconds, but nd changes how your brain works. So does personality do blood flow takes 2 seconds. A 2 problem is that it’s this too? time intensive and expensive, so there are only a The nervous system is made of the central nervous limited number of participants (higher chance of rd system (CNS; brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral error). 3 problem is the non-independence error nervous system (PNS; somatic – movements of muscle (researchers may unintentionally bias their results by – and autonomic – smooth and cardiac muscle, glands). not independently selecting which brain areas to The autonomic nervous system divides energy for correlate with variables). 4 time of day and sympathetic (fight or flight situations)/parasympathetic nervousness of participants may influence results. A (replenish body: salivation and digestion). distinct technique for measuring activity is TMS Brain is protected by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that flows (electric current passes through a coil placed on the through spaces in the brain (ventricle). head and the magnetic field disrupts regular activity of Researches hypothesize that differences in bodily neurons in that area). responses, brain structure, brain activity and  Biochemical activity: we might analyze cerebrospinal biochemical activity are all related to individual fluid, blood, saliva or urine to monitor levels of differences in personality. neurotransmitters (chemicals released by neurons to  Bodily Responses: the body’s responses to inhibit or excite next neuron), hormones or drugs. environment are caused by the autonomic system. Sometimes it’s difficult to directly measure levels of a The galvanic skin response (GSR) measure skin neurotransmitter, so then you measure its by-product. conductance or how quickly a slight electrical current Another way is to use the challenge test (researchers passes through 2 points on the skin (the faster, the administer a drug that’s known to either increase or more moisture, the greater arousal). The decrease neurotransmitter’s functioning and monitor electromyography (EMG) measure muscle activity and the impact of the new substance). estimates electric impulses of muscle during Neurological Theories of Personality contraction and relaxation. It estimates electrical Temperament: personality characteristics that are: impulses of muscle during contraction and relaxation o Relatively stable across life span and is often used in biofeedback so people can learn o Expressed through general energy level to relax their muscles. Others are cardiovascular o Present from early childhood measurements (heart rate/blood flow/ blood o Similar in other species of animals. pressure) and respiratory functions. o Present at birth  Brain Structure: Researchers also study the differences o Determined by genetic factors in weight and size of parts of the brain. We can dissect o Changeable with maturation and experience the brain, for cytological (cell) studies, use CT scans (X- For biological basis, all major theories converge on 3 rays of brain), or MRI (radio frequency waves instead temperaments: Extraversion (positive, reward-sensitive, of X-rays). social, approachable), Neuroticism (negative, anxiety,  Brain Activity: Differences can be pinpointed also punishment-sensitive, withdrawn), and Impulsivity (psychotic, lack of constraint, sensation-seeker, lack of through activity of a person’s brain as they engage in mental tasks. This can be done with cortical conscientiousness and agreeableness). stimulation (invasive), or EEG (electrodes placed on Eysenck wanted to create a theory that both explains scalp to monitor electrical activity and finds evoked how people developed personalities as well as predict potentials – response by autonomic nervous system the personalities. He studied normal and psychiatric as seen through electric currents). PET scans use patients and found Psychoticism, Extraversion and radioactive glucose which is traced throughout the Neuroticism (PEN). Extraversion is how outgoing people active brain regions. The best way though is through are, Neuroticism is how emotionally unstable people are, and Psychoticism is how manipulative and (extreme: mania and high-risk impulsive behaviors). antisocial people are. Evidence to support his theory This is similar to extraversion. comes from: (1) cross-cultural universality in traits that  Behavioral Inhibition System: inhibits behavior or implies a strong biological component, (2) people show resolves conflict (2 one is modern view). It’s great consistency in these 3 traits despite activated when there’s a conflict between the other environmental changes (shows it’s biological too), and systems, and until the conflict is resolved, we may feel (3) the 3 traits have some sort of heritability. There are worried, anxious, in risk, or sense possible danger clear biological explanations for Neuroticism and (extreme: OCD or GAD). When this is activated, people Extraversion but not psychoticism: become more sensitive to punishment. There is an  Neurology of Extraversion: the main difference optimal level, otherwise we’re either to prone to risks, between levels of extraversion was arousal. Eysenck or too scared of it. This is similar to BIS thought introverts had greater cortical arousal in the What this suggests is that our inherent behavioral ascending reticular activating system (ARAS; pathway systems (FFFS, BAS, and BIS) predispose us to respond transmitting signals from limbic system and to punishments/rewards, but experiences refine our hypothalamus to cortex; related to alertness and personalities. The neurology of the systems: We have a being mentally alert). Introverts avoid situations that lot of evidence, but some of it is inconclusive (we don’t would aggravate their already overstimulated ARAS. know if that’s because of the theory itself or because Extraverts are the opposite, so in that way, both are we can’t operationalize the terms well). An experiment: trying to find their optimal level of arousal. This If BAS is related to rewards, one reward for all humans hypothesis was tested and FAILED. However, there is food. So the prediction would be that people with was a difference in their arousability (sensory different BAS strengths would react differently for reactivity). So they don`t actually have different images of food. This reward is good because it isn’t natural arousal levels, just different reactions. related to fun-seeking activities (so we can be sure it’s  Neurology of neuroticism: Eysenck thought just BAS, not BIS too). Participants with strong BAS had neuroticism had to do with the stability of the stronger reactions. Another point with another sympathetic nervous system (like the hippocampus, experiment is that people with strong BAS get amygdala, cingulum, hypothalamus and septum). conditioned faster when there’s a potential for earning Neurotic trait was due to an extrasensitive emotional a reward, while people with strong BIS learn faster system. when there’s a potential for avoiding a punishment. Another theory was proposed by Gray. He believed Then and Now: Phrenology personality is the variation in the functioning of brain Phrenology (study of brain structure) started with Gall. system. He wanted to identify individual differences in His only right point was that certain functions of the brain-behavior systems and link them to standard brain were localized in cerebral cortex. Other than that measures of personality. Research showed 3 (size of bumps matters…), he was wrong. He also neurological systems based on the reinforcement inspired Combe who discovered that by pressing on an sensitivity theory (systems exist based on evidence exposed part of the cortex, blood came out of it, and from neurology, physiology, behavior and personality the patient’s behavior changed. The blood part led to and we can infer neural activity from them): the creation of fMRI. One type of fMRI is DTI (diffusion  Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS): associated with tensor imaging) which traces water in cells. fear and is responsible to our reactions in aversive Neurological Correlates of Personality Positive emotions and negative ones are not opposites, stimuli. The matching personality factor is fearfulness and avoidance (extreme: phobia and panic disorder) they’re separate dimensions. Being high in one doesn’t  Behavioral Approach System: responsible for mean you’ll be low in the other. Absence of positive appetitive stimuli; those that are pleasurable. It makes emotions is not negative emotions, it’s anhedonia people more sensitive to reward. The matching (inability to experience pleasure). That’s why there are neurotic extraverts. Impulsivity involves lack of personality factors are optimism and impulsiveness constraint or a state of being undercontrolled. It’s through different kinds of experiments), (2) boredom- different than Eysenck’s psychoticism because susceptibility (need for change and variety and aversion psychoticism involves higher-order categories too, to routine and sameness), (3) thrill and adventure including antisocial aspects. Also, impulsivity involves seeking (arousal seeking through physical sensations), other things like sensation-seeking. According to RST, and (4) disinhibition (extent to which people have impulsivity is due to failure of the BIS system to inhibit lowered social inhibitions and enjoy letting loose in behavior, or a strong BAS. company of others; partying, sex, alcohol). Usually Extraversion: Neuroticism: impulsive people are males and are in their 20’s. They enjoy drinking, loud music, illegal behavior and stressful  Cortex: extraverts have  Cortex: neurotics have less less grey matter in right grey matter in left jobs (that cause new experiences). Sensation seekers react differently to new stimuli: they habituate faster, hemisphere. It may hemisphere. So, mean lessened social neuroticism is not related have greater pain tolerance, higher extraversion, less inhibition or efficient to extraversion. hypochondriasis, and higher sensory thresholds. Sensation-seeking is also related to dopamine reactivity socialization.  Amygdala: neurotics have  Amygdala: Extraverts less grey matter in the (increases exploration of novel stimuli), low serotonin (fails to inhibit behavior, and low norepinephrine have more grey matter right amygdala. Due to the in left amygdala. relation to depression, this (lessens stress response to stimuli). Extraverts also show shows that the reduction Chapter 8 more activity in the in amygdala happens amygdala before depression. No Background Freud believed that just as the body carries out its  Functional: while looking different activity for at happy pictures, neuroticism probably functions with energy, so does the mind carries out its functions with psychic energy (which fueled the extraverts showed because detecting threat is higher activity in so important that it is functions of the mind). The answer to the mind-body temporal and frontal present in all, regardless of problem was instincts (or impulses; a tension originating from within the body). According to him, cortex. personality.  Biochemistry: dopamine.  Functional: while looking at there are 2 categories of instinct: Eros (life impulses; include survival instincts; their life energy is called Introverts are more sad pictures, high neurotics sensitive to fluctuations showed higher activity in libido; the most important is sex) and Thanatos (death in this, but extraverts temporal and frontal instincts; not a developed theory, but the only example he provided was aggression; not agreed upon today have greater activity. It cortex. makes sense since the  Biochemistry: serotonin. because it doesn’t fit in with evolution). Freud believed that we don’t act in sexual/aggressive acts because we dopamine system is Less serotonin means connected to amygdala, higher neuroticism, since have been socialized to hide them. Since we can’t just destroy libido (it follows the law of conservation of which is more active in serotonin regulates moods. mass), it manifests itself in unconscious ways. This can extraverts. be uncovered through: Left-right asymmetries: people differ in how large the  Free association: patient relaxes and is asked to speak relative differences in both hemispheres are; present as whatever comes to mind without consciously trying to early as first year in life. You may have left symmetry control it. People need to be relaxed (not necessarily (your left responds more to positive thoughts than your hypnotized) to do this. right responds to negative ones).  Dream analysis: detailed examination of content and Sensation-seeking: seeking of new, complex, or intense symbolism of dreams in order to decipher their hidden sensations and willingness to take risks for their sake. It and unconscious meaning. Because it’s still dangerous is measured with a scale that has 4 subscales: (1) for dark urges to reveal themselves, they use manifest experience-seeking (desire for moderate arousal content (the superficial dream meaning, used to symbolically express the latent content – actual dark reality principle (tries to satisfy id within the meaning – in a dream). An experiment regarding constraints of physical and social limits). This uses dream analysis found that Freud was right in that secondary process thinking (logical thinking; weighing suppressed thoughts do come out in dreams, but costs of superego and benefits for id). The superego showed that no matter the emotion associated with strives for unrealistic perfection and contains society’s the thoughts, they were still likely to appear in the expectations that we learnt from parents as we were dream (due to cognitive ironic processes of mental growing up. It has 2 parts: control, and not unconscious motivations). o The conscience (not conscious): knowledge of what  Parapraxes: mistakes in speaking and acting. One type you should not do. The punishments come in forms is a Freudian Slip: mistake in speech that reveal of feelings of guilt, embarrassment or shame. hidden unconscious desires. Yet, research shows that o Ego ideal: knowledge of what we should do. people may also slip due to priming from whatever is Rewards are feelings of pride. on their mind (not just id impulses). This model will be most likely abandoned soon, since there’s no evidence that some parts of our personality  Humor: even jokes can be analyzed much like dreams.  Symbolic Behaviors: actions that seem innocent on are more logical than others. The one thing to take is the surface but actually represent deeper motives. that there are conflicts, and behavior is truly a Then and Now compromise between conscience , reality, desires, and Word association method: used by most psychologists social responsibility. to identify connections people made between words,  The topographic model: the conscious mind (thoughts but Jung (Freud’s disciple) used it to identify that we are currently aware of), the preconscious unconscious complexes (important concerns for a mind (thoughts that are just outside; we can easily person that he or she may not be aware of; aka known summon them) and the unconscious mind (thoughts as schemas and are patterns of thoughts, memories, that we cannot reach by ourselves).The unconscious is and perceptions organized around a theme). also called the motivated unconscious (the The implicit Association Test (IAT) is an assessment unconscious can produce thoughts, feelings or technique that measures reaction times in order to defenses in us related to our impulses). Freud didn’t reveal any hidden thoughts. It measures the strength of think of these as separate ‘rooms’ but as continuity of associations between concepts (the more related, the mental life. Freud was right here: (1) there is a easier it will be to sort them). continuum (so they’re processes not places), (2) Freud’s View unconscious influences conscious decisions, and (3) Freud used a structural model that described cognitive unconscious (current model of the personality and a topographical model that described unconscious) is motivated and driven (not by id regions in our mind where parts of personality reside. desires) but by our thoughts without all the ‘drama’.  Structural Model: made up of the id, ego and Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms superego. Id operates through primary process Anxiety may come out in physical symptoms (conversion disorders) or in psychological symptoms thinking (it makes decisions without logical rules and conscious though) and is based on the pleasure (phobia, anxiety). Other than that, the ego may use principle (requires immediate gratification). There are defense mechanisms to protect itself: 2 ways to satisfy id:  Reaction Formation: instead of expressing a o Reflex Action: when id seeks immediate physical threatening id impulse, you express the opposite (e.g. homophobics may actually be ashamed homosexuals). gratification (body part of the mind-body problem) o Wish Fulfillment: id seeks gratification by There is strong evidence for its existence, but we don’t imagining what it wants (the mind part; usually know yet if it’s unconscious or not happens when reflex action is not appropriate).  Isolation: mentally isolate a threatening thought by It’s the job of the ego to satisfy the id as much as keeping it separate from other thoughts or feelings. possible (through identification). The ego follows the One form is intellectualization (isolate the emotion so ou can experience memories without the disturbing These all can be classified into 3 categories: the feelings. Isolation has a lot to do with cognition transformation can be of the impulse, the target or the because by blocking one negative thought, you person feeling the impulse. prevent descending into more negative feelings. Vicissitudes: changing nature of the instinct.  Denial: refuse to believe a threatening or traumatic Psychosexual Stages event. Denial is useful in the short-run, but not in the Adult personalities emerge from childhood ones. long one. Development starts with a libidinal urge in a specific  Undoing: person who either thought about doing or erogenous zone (biologically determined part of the body). The tension builds up there and must be satisfied already performed an unacceptable act tries to nullify the act with another. One example is eating disorder so the tension subsides and the child can move on. If where woman eats and then purges to undo the too much or too little gratification occurs, part of the eating, or abuse, where man brings flower to wife to child will have to stay behind to deal with this, thus undo the abuse. Counterfactual rumination (thinking detracting from future resources for other stages (fixation). People fixated at one stage will show adult about a past event and how you could have acted differently also ‘nullifies’ the event) is a type of personalities related to the fixation. There will be both undoing, but it ends up making people feel worse bodily (in erogenous zone) and mind (symbolic) nd rd (that’s why 2 place are sadder than 3 place). It’s activities. Freud believed we`re born with an id, at 2 viewed as a coping, not defense, mechanism because years develop ego and at 5 develop superego (which means our personality is complete). Stages: it helps in improving in the future, but doesn’t protect.  Projection: attribute our own understanding to  Oral: birth-18 months. Life is about feeding so the another person. What we find annoying in other erogenous zone is mouth. If the child takes too much people is more revealing of out insecurities. Research or too little pleasure in sucking/biting, he’ll develop a shows that not thinking about an undesirable train fixation. If inappropriate gratification occurs too early, makes it more likely for you to project it on others. he develops oral incorporative personality (body: Current research shows that we see these traits in excessive eating, drinking, smoking or kissing; mind: others not because we are trying to hide them from dependent, gullible, good listener, and collector), but ourselves, but because of thought suppression (one if it occurred later, he develops an oral sadistic type of ironic cognitive processes). personality (body: chewing gum, nail-biting,  Displacement: the true id impulse is expressed, but overeating; mind: aggressive, sarcastic, cynic, mean) the target is changed to a more acceptable one.  Anal: 1-3 years. Life is about being potty-trained. This is the first time child should adhere to social Catharsis: release of id energy after tension had been building up; acting or viewing aggression is thought to expectations. How the child reacts to the monitoring satisfy this. However, experiments show that acting of the parents affects his personality. If he just poops aggressively actually increases later aggression. everywhere and anywhere, he’ll develop anal  Sublimation: change impulse into something more expulsive personality (body: bed-wetting, lack of sphincter control; mind: confident, nonconventional, acceptable. This defense mechanism has no experimental and correlation support. resisting authority, overly generous and creative). If he  Repression: rejecting and keeping something out of reacts by refusing to go, he’ll develop anal retentive conscience (it’s different than suppression in that personality (body: anal problems, constipation; mind: suppression is conscious but repression isn’t).People rigid, compulsive, lives up to expectations, stingy, organized, perfectionist, stubborn). Today we know don’t forget about the anxiety-provoking events though. that physical bowel ailments are actual body disorders, not personality-related.  Rationalization: people re-interpret their behavior to hide true motivations for their actions. This has to do  Phallic: 2-5 years, happens after discovery of genitals. with cognitive dissonance where we try to justify what This is the most complicated stage (beware). This is we did so we don’t feel bad. This has a lot of evidence. when Oedipus Complex (wanting to marry your mom and hating your dad for being her love – if you`re a examining children as they grew. So it’s based on biased guy) develops and must be resolved. Boys also notice methods and sampling girls don`t have penises, and start to develop Freud’s Oedipus’ Complex is also wrong because he castration anxiety (fear of having their penises assumed children 2-5 knew more than they actually do. removed and being a girl, probably because the father Children in this age range actually don’t know enough to – the `rival`- may notice their love to mother). So, he feel superior or inferior. decides he should repress love to mom and hate to Boys and girls don’t differ in morality and they both dad so he can keep his penis. He also begins to identify develop morality sooner than Freud imagined. with dad. This way, he uses id wish fulfillment to His whole theory of psychosexual development is based imagine he`s with mom (like his dad), as well as on the idea of sexual fantasies, but it might be that his superego develops, based on his dad. If child doesn`t patients weren’t just remembering fantasies, but actual learn to identify with dad, he develops phallic sexual assaults. Empirical evidence doesn’t support the character (overly exaggerated sense of masculinity or Freud’s psychosexual development theory. machisimo; mind chooses hobbies that show his Research Methods masculinity: power tools, trucks, large machines…). As Case study (aka psychobiography in psychology): in- for girls, they also start with a love to mom (she`s the depth study of one person. Cons: can’t generalize, and source of food and care) but slowly realize that boys can’t prove causality. Pros: create hypotheses; logic is have penises and they don`t and then they develop inductive (start from one instance to general principle); penis envy (“penis is big compared to their genitals, so support theory. Success of case studies depends on boys must be more superior, I wish I had a penis”). choice of subject and thoroughness of researcher. The girl reasons the only person close to cut it off is Psychodynamic Theory since Freud her mother and at the same time she is attracted to Neo-Freudians: people who broke off from Freud and her dad but is jealous that he has a penis. One way to developed similar theories: Jung, Adler, Horney… They get rid of this is for the girl to grow up and have a male objected to Freud’s id psychology and created the ego baby who resembles her dad. Because girls have no psychology (including Freud’s own daughter). These way of identifying with their dad, they can’t develop theories include object relations theory (cognitive and superego (so they’re with no morals), and because of emotional processes involved in intimate relationships; this (not lack of penis) are women inferior to men. focus on actual relations, not fantasy), relational theory, Women fixated here develop hysterical character and self-psychology, and they placed more emphasis on (exaggerated femininity, flirtatious, promiscuous). mental representations of the self and less on sex and  Latency: 5-puberty. Freud believed that no aggression. Contemporary psychoanalysis is the part of development happens here because child’s id is Freud’s psychoanalysis that was scientifically proven: preoccupied with school, same-sex friends…  Much of our thoughts are unconscious (Sublimation) to be thinking about sex. We now know  Part of being human is recognizing that we have this is wrong because that’s when most development conflicting thoughts, and behavior is an imperfect happens. compromise. Our unconscious is also more rational  Genital: puberty and on. Freud believed if people than Freud thought, but our feelings influence our passed all the other stages, they can be considered cognitions more than cognitivists thought normal adults. This would mean you’re heterosexual  Personality begins from childhood but continues to marry, have kids, and be a self-sufficient member of adulthood. Childhood experiences are still important society (‘to love and to work’). If you did have  Mental representations of self, others and relations problems, you should go to psychotherapy. are important in that the way we form later relations Critiquing Freud  Personality development and growth involves moving He developed these theories by studying his adult from immature dependence to mature independence. patients who recalled their childhoods, not by actually Attachment Theory Attachment theory is a type of contemporary There’s also evidence that attachment styles are psychoanalysis. It talks about personality, close relations generational (parent’s attachment will become child’s and development. In hospitals in the 20 century, attachment style). children were left isolated, only had physical needs People with different attachment styles thought about taken care of. Bowlby saw this and was disturbed at the love differently too (based on the internal working lack of care to the emotional needs. The children there model for others which resembles that of their mother): first went through protest (crying to prevent mum from secure attachment experienced ‘normal’, happy love; leaving), then despair (sad, passive, and hopeless that avoidant experienced fear of intimacy; and anxious- mum would return) and finally detachment at her ambivalent experienced obsessions. return. Some children came back to normal later, and Attachment styles were also researched on couples. others didn’t. Bowlby created the internal working Instead of the Strange Situation, the couples were models (child who trusts in mom is less fearful, the observed as they separated at the airport. Results: confidence builds up until adolescence and remains  More attachment behaviors in separating couples constant in adulthood, and these also reflect future than in non-separating ones. experiences). We have to internal working models: one  Longer-term couples showed less attachment for relations (comes from mom) and other for ourselves behaviors (from feelings of lovability…). Ainsworth continued on  Gender had a relation with the attachment style: Bowlby’s theory and developed Strange Situation women with anxiety reported more distress (even (observe mother-child interactions, then separate mom though they didn’t show different behaviors). Women to see how child reacts). This was able to show relations with avoidant styles avoided contact with partner. between mother’s sensitivity and responsiveness to the Men with anxiety showed less contact but men with child’s attachment. The mother’s sensitivity to infant avoidant showed no specific behavior. plays a greater role than the child’s temperament. Secure adults are more likely to experience Rogers’ fully Ainsworth identified these types: functioning behaviors: openness to new experiences, o Secure Attachment: children of sensitive- trust in oneself and the world, lack of fear of responsive mothers; children were more obedient disapproval, experience thoughts deeply, sensitive and and socialized. Mother was their secure base and responsive to others’ needs, and volunteering in safe haven community. o Avoidant attachment: children to mothers who didn’t show physical contact; children were Chapter 9 oblivious to their mother’s departure and didn’t Three Fundamental Psychological Needs look to her as the safe haven. They looked like they Self-Determination theory: when we are extrinsically didn’t care, but their physiological measures motivated (with some external pressures like rewards showed they did secretly (their hearts beat as fast or punishments), we may not enjoy the activity, as those with secure attachment). perform out best or continue the behavior, yet when o Anxious-ambivalent attachment: children whose we are intrinsically motivated (acting based on our own mothers showed mixed signals or were insensitive; desires), we enjoy things more; why we do something is the children didn’t explore much and they were more important than what we do. The theory is generally anxious in and out of her presence. grounded in the humanistic tradition (emphasis on o Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment: children responsibility, growth and actualization – motive to whose parents show that they themselves are bring about growth and positive change). Other than afraid or worried. Children don’t know how to physical needs, humans have 3 fundamental approach parents, and so don’t socialize. psychological (important) needs: Attachment at an early age and at later life has r=.39  Autonomy: individuals must feel that they can choose (pretty large). These remain generally constant unless a freely (what to pursue) instead of being pushed life-changing event occurs (death/separation/threats…). around or forced by other people or situations.  Competence: feeling effective in one’s actions and of causality (aka autonomy): describes relation between having opportunities and experiences to exercise, choice and behavior (how free are people in choosing expand and express one’s abilities. their behaviors). Competence and Self-Efficacy: Self-efficacy: belief that  Relatedness: feeling connected to others, having people to care for and to receive care from. one can be competent and effective at some activity. When these 3 are met, people will feel more There are 2 parts to it: (1) outcome expectation (belief intrinsically motivated, perform well and build skills to that behaving in a certain way will produce a certain increase their well-being. outcome) and (2) efficacy expectation (belief that one is capable of acting in a certain way; will he pass/fail?). How Do We Satisfy These Needs Fostering Autonomy – Autonomy Support: one way is to Ways to build up efficacy: experience, vicarious learning provide choices (if a child doesn’t want vegetables, (observing others), social persuasion (people might being supportive instead of controlling is to ask them convince you that you can or can’t do something), and “do you want carrots or broccoli?” instead of “eat your physical/emotional states (how we felt when we did something will affect how we think about our ability in vegetables). Another way is to encourage initiative (give people a chance for themselves to see what/how they performing it again). want to do something). Relatedness and Attachment theory: Relatedness in the Fostering Competence – Structure and Optimal self-determination theory is derived from the Challenge: people need tasks that are aimed at the right attachment theory and both recognize the fundamental
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