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PSY45 Midterm Notes Chapters(1, 2, 3, 4, 13, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26).docx

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Amanda Uliaszek

PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION MIDTERM NOTES Chapter 1: What is Applied Behaviour Analysis - Development of behaviour depends on heredity and experience o Heredity charts the course of maturation; and develops the tendency towards behaviours of certain types - Respondent conditioning = Conditioning a response (Pavlov) - Operant Conditioning = Learning behaviour through the outcomes (Pos./Neg. Reinforce) - Modeling = Learn by watching (Bandura and Bobo Doll) - Cognition refers to covert behaviours - Applied behaviour analysis = field of practice/study that focuses on using principles of learning to understand and improve socially significant behaviours. (particularly operant) - Focus on Behavioural methods; Cognitive methods focus on modifying thought processes - Behaviour analysts focus on: o Defining people’s current status and progress in terms of behaviours o Being able to measure the behaviour o Whenever possible assessing covert behaviours in terms of overt actions - Psychoanalytic theory (Freud) = behaviour as an expression of their personality and component forces such as drive and conflicts - Behaviourism emerged early 1900’s (Watson, Skinner) = emphasises study of observable and measureable behaviour - Three lines of study especially important: o Thorndike (studied how satisfying and annoying consequences affect learning) o Pavlov (Salivating dogs) o Skinner (Named and defined operant and respondent, designed operant chamber) - Wolpe developed highly effective respondent conditioning therapy for reducing fears/anxieties Chapter 2: Identifying and Assessing Target Behaviours - A good definition of target behaviour is objective and unambiguous - Outcome goals are broad or abstracted results we want to achieve - Behavioural goal is the level of target behaviour we hope to achieve in a program - Behavioural chain = motor activity that consists of a sequence of antecedents and responses - Yes to following supports giving priority to the behaviour to be changed o Lead to reinforcement in everyday environment o Reduce occurrence of harm or damage o Be a prerequisite for learning a skill that enables person to function better o Affect in positive ways others in their life o Behavioural cusp = benefits beyond its direct effects because it exposes person to new richer environments o Show response generalization (altering one behaviour leads to changes in others) o Take place of or interfere with performing a problem behaviour - Latency = amount of time a person takes to initiate the appropriate response to an antecedent PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION MIDTERM NOTES - Quality = For when goal involves improving how well the person performs a target behaviour - Trials to Criterion = counting number of tries it takes to achieve specific level of performance - Percentage = proportion of behaviours that meet the criterion - Continuous Recording = designating specific period of time and trying to observe and record every instance of target behaviour during that time o Real-life recording = continuous when observer records start and start time of each behaviour - Interval Recording = designate a number of specific observation periods, divide each into short intervals of equal length and record if behaviour occurs in each (y/n) - Time Sampling = designate number of observation periods, divide each into subperiods of equal length and designate short interval at the beginning of each to record behaviour - Accurate = recorded value = true value/ Valid = reflects what is intended to measure - Reactivity = People’s behaviour becomes more desirable as an effect of being observed - Interobserver agreement (IOA) – different observers acquire same data o Sessions Total = all data collected is added and the smaller total is divided by the larger o Point-by-point agreement = Divide number of intervals in which observed behaviour was agreed to occur, by the total number of intervals - Negative Practice = in self-monitoring, perform behaviour over and over again while paying attention to every sensation it produces - 80% Reliability is generally considered accepable Chapter 3: Using Data and Research Methods in Behaviour Analysis - When data varies greatly we can calculate the mean of groups, mostly grouped by weeks - Cumulative Graphs = Line graphs in which measure of behaviour accumulates across units (ex. Week 1 = 2, week 3 = 4; On graph the points would be 2, 6, respectively) - Complete graph needs (Axes; Axis scaling and labels; data points; phase lines/labels; caption) - Graphic Analysis = Inspect graph data to see if behaviour changed substantially when intervention implemented - Graphic analysis done at the start of intervention to see if it working; need to asses two trends: one reflects whether behaviour improved from baseline to intervention, the other if it improved during intervention. - Trend Line = Line of best fit that passes through the mean of the data of each phase - AB design useful when we just need to know the extent the behaviour changed, but not when we want to isolate the cause - Reversal Designs = ABA and ABAB (advantage of demonstrating increases and decreases in behaviour that correspond to presence and absence of intervention) - Three problems for using reversal designs: o Effect of intervention may not be reversible (which means during the second A we can’t be sure why the behaviour changed if it doesn’t revert to baseline) o Sometimes hard to decide what would constitute a reversal o May be unethical to withdraw an intervention PSYB45 – BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION MIDTERM NOTES - Multiple baseline = Multiple baselines start at the same time but their interventions start delayed. After one segment of the first intervention is done, the second starts its intervention and so on o Across Behaviours = separate AB for two or more different behaviours for a single individual in a particular setting o Across subjects = separate AB for two or more individuals for a particular behaviour in particular setting o Across Situations = separate AB for each two or more different situations, typically for single individual and a specific behaviour. - Changing Criterion Design = criterion for successful performance changes over time usually becoming more rigorous (can determine whether an intervention caused changes) - Alternating Treatment Designs = Alternate between 2 treatments over time of the same intervention; examining graphs tells us if one is more effective than the other) o Advantages = no reversal phases needed, two treatments can be prepared - Three Dimensions of Evaluations o Generalization and Durability = generalize to natural environment and last o Amount and Importance of Change  Clinical Significance = degree to which change in behaviour is meaningful to target person’s life and functioning  Social Validity = utility and adaptiveness of change for everyday functioning o Cost-Benefit Ratio Chapter 4: Some Areas of Effective Application - Programmed Instruction = self-teaching process in which students actively learn material presented step-by-step as a series of discrete items with corrective feedback in textbook or tech. - Computer-Assisted Instruction = more advanced programmed instruction uses compter to coach students through lessons - Personalized System of Instruction = splits course content into two modules and has students study independently and be tested and evaluated immediately when ready - Retardation = Mild (53-69); Moderate (38-52); Severe (22-37); Profound (<22) - Model Intervention for Autistic Child o Establish teaching relation(2-4w); teach foundation skills (1-4m); focus on simple communication(6m or more); expand communication and begin peer interaction(1y); promote advanced communications and adjustment to school(1y) - Self Management/Modification = applying behaviour change skills to self o By learning self management techniques, can increase self-control and self- regulation Chapter 13: Functional Assessment and Program Design - Critical part for designing program to change behaviour is answering what functions does the behavi
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