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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 10Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus ControlChapter OutlineAn Example of Prompting and Fading Teaching Little Leaguers to Hit the BallWhat is PromptingWhat is FadingTypes of PromptsResponse PromptsVerbal PromptsGestural PromptsModeling PromptsPhysical PromptsStimulus PromptsWithinStimulus PromptsExtraStimulus PromptsTransfer of Stimulus ControlPrompt FadingPrompt DelayStimulus FadingHow to Use Prompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control1Choose the most appropriate prompt Strategy2Get the learners AttentionD3Present the S4Prompt the Correct Response5Reinforce the Correct Behavior6Transfer Stimulus Control7Continue to Reinforce Unprompted ResponsesPrompting and Transfer of Stimulus Control in Autism TreatmentChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestApplicationsMisapplicationsChapter 10 Quiz 1Chapter 10 Quiz 2Chapter 10 Quiz 3Ideas for Class Activities1 Set up a role play in the front of the class in which you play the role of a therapist and a student from class volunteers to play the role of an autistic youngster The therapist must teach the student a simple skill using prompting and fading Choose a skill that can be easily prompted imitation of motor movements such as touch your head After showing the class how to conduct the procedure switch roles and have the student play the role of therapist as you ply the role of autistic youngster The student should now demonstrate prompting and fading skills 1012 Provide a number of descriptions of scenarios in which prompting and transfer of stimulus control would be used to teach skills Have the students describe how to use the procedures in each scenarioHave students use response prompts with some examples and stimulus prompts with other examples Have students use prompt fading as well as prompt delay proceduresAnswers to Practice Test Questions1A prompt an antecedent stimulus that evokes a response is used to increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in the correct behavior at the correct timeIn behavior modification prompts are used during Ddiscrimination training to help a person engage in the correct behavior in the presence of the S2 Response prompts involve the behavior of another person a trainer used to get the desired response to occurWith a verbal prompt the verbal behavior of another person results in the correct response in the presence of the DSA gestural prompt is any physical movement or gesture of another person that leads to the correct behavior in Dthe presence of the SA modeling prompt or modeling is any demonstration of the correct behavior by another person that makes it more likely that the correct behavior will occur at the right timeWith a physical prompt another person physically assists the individual to engage in the correct behavior at the right time3From the example in the chapter when Coach McCall told Luke how to hit the ball correctly he was using a verbal prompt Coach McCall used a gestural prompt with Tom when he motioned to him how to swing the batWith Matt a modeling prompt was used when Coach McCall showed him the target behaviorCoach McCall provided a physical prompt to Trevor by physically guiding him through the correct behavior until he could do it himselfNote in each case a verbal prompt was provided as well4A stimulus prompt involves some change in a stimulus or the addition or removal of a stimulus to make a Dcorrect response more likelyThere are two types of stimulus prompts When the S is altered this is referred to as Da withinstimulus promptWhen another stimulus or cue is added to the S it is considered an extrastimulus prompt5Coach McCall used a withinstimulus prompt when he had Coach Dave throw easy pitches for the kids to hit at firstAn example of an extrastimulus prompt is a picture prompt used to help adolescents with intellectual disabilities complete complex vocational tasks correctly6Leasttomost prompting also called the system of least prompts is defined as providing the least intrusive prompt first and using more intrusive prompts only as necessary to get the correct behavior to occurLeastto most prompting is a method of fading across promptsFor example Ralphs job coach first uses the least intrusive prompt a verbal prompt to get Ralph to remove the paper stuffing out of the shoeIf Ralph does not respond in 5 seconds the job coach repeats the verbal prompt and points at the paper in the shoe provides a gestural promptIf Ralph does not respond in 5 seconds the job coach models the correct behavior and provides the verbal promptIf Ralph still does not respond the job coach uses physical guidance as he provides the verbal prompt7With mosttoleast prompting the most intrusive prompt is used first and is then faded to less intrusive promptsFor example in using mosttoleast prompting the job coach should start by providing a physical prompt together with a verbal promptHe would then start to fade the physical prompt as Ralph successfully executed the behaviorOnce he faded the physical prompt he would provide a verbal and gestural promptThen as Ralph continued to be successful he would fade the verbal prompt as Ralph correctly took the paper out of the shoe with no assistance8The flashing lights are a stimulus prompt in particular an extrastimulus prompt9Once stimulus or response prompts have been used to get the correct response to occur the prompts have to be Deliminated to transfer stimulus control to the natural STransfer of stimulus control is important because it ensures that the correct behavior occurs at the right time without any assistance prompts10With fading of response prompts prompt fading a response prompts is gradually removed across learning 102
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