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University of Toronto Scarborough
Zachariah Campbell

Chapter 11ChainingChapter OutlineExamples of Behavioral ChainsAnalyzing StimulusResponse ChainsTask AnalysisBackward ChainingForward ChainingTotal Task PresentationOther Strategies for Teaching Behavioral ChainsWritten Task AnalysisPicture PromptsVideo ModelingSelfInstructionHow to Use Chaining Procedures1Determine whether a chaining procedure is most appropriate2Develop a task analysis3Get a baseline assessment of the learners ability4Choose the chaining method you will use5Implement the chaining procedure6Continue reinforcement after the task has been learnedChapter SummaryKey TermsPractice TestApplicationsMisapplicationsChapter 11 Quiz 1Chapter 11 Quiz 2Chapter 11 Quiz 3Ideas for Class activities1 Engage in a simple 3 or 4 step chain of behaviors in front of the class Have the class write a task analysis of the Dbehavioral chain indicating each S and response in the chainRepeat with another chain of behaviors2 Engage the students in a role play in which you play the role of trainer and a student plays the role of a learner Use backward chaining forward chaining and total task presentation to teach the chain of behaviors you had just demonstrated in classReverse roles and have students play the role of trainer and conduct the procedures in a role playAnswers to Practice Test Questions1A stimulusresponse chain also called a behavioral chain consists of a number of stimulusresponse components that occur together in a sequenceFor example making a telephone call and purchasing a candy bar from a vending machine are both examples of stimulus response chains 1152To make a telephone call 1 In the room with the phonewalk to the telephone 2 while at the phoneremove the receiver from the unit 3 with the receiver in you handput the receiver to your ear and 4 with the receiver to your eardial the desired telephone numberTo get a candy bar from the vending machine 1 in the room with the vending machinewalk to the vending machine 2 while in front of the vending machinetake the appropriate amount of change from your pocket purse etc 3 with coins in handplace the coins in the appropriate slot 4 once coins are in the slotpush the button which represents your selection and 5 with the candy bar dropped into the deliver chuteremove the candy bar from the delivery chute3A task analysis is the process of analyzing a behavioral chain by breaking it down into its individual stimulusresponse componentsIt is important to conduct a task analysis because teaching a task to an individual involves discrimination training with each stimulusresponse component of the behavioral chainA detailed task analysis gives you an accurate understanding of each stimulusresponse component4The following represents a task analysis of the behavior of pouring water from a pitcher into a glassD1S1Pitcher of water and glass on tableR1pick up the pitcher with right handD2S2Pitcher in right hand glass on tableR2pick up glass with left handD3S3Pitcher in right hand glass in left handR3 pour water into glass D4S4glass full of water in left hand pitcher in rightR4 place pitcher back on table5With backward chaining you use prompting and fading to teach the last behavior in the chain firstOnce the Dlast behavior is mastered the learner exhibits the behavior when the S is presented without any prompts you teach the next to last behaviorOnce this behavior is mastered and the learner engages in the last two behaviors in the chain without any prompts the next behavior up the chain is taughtThis process continues until the learner Dcan exhibit the whole chain of behaviors when presented with the first S without any prompts6To use backward chaining for the task identified in question 4 you would place the pitcher in the learners right Dhand and a glass full of water in the left hand S4 then prompt using the least intrusive prompt necessary the correct response of placing the pitcher on the table R4 providing praise when the learner has done soOnce the learner starts to execute the response himself you begin to fade the prompt until he completes R4 independently then back up the chain and teach the third componentTo do so you place the pitcher of water in the learners Dright hand the empty glass in the right S3From there you prompt the learner to pour the water from the pitcher into the glass R3 then provide praiseOnce the water has been poured pitcher is in right hand glass full Dof water in leftS4 the learner will place the pitcher on the table R4 because he has already learned to do so in Dthe presence of S4You then gradually fade the prompt used to evoke the behavior of pouring water until the learner completes R3 independentlyOnce the third and fourth components of the chain have been mastered begin teaching the second componentPlace the pitcher of water in the learners right hand and the empty glass Don the table S2Then prompt the learner to pick up the empty glass with his left hand R2 and praise him for Ddoing soWhen pitcher and glass are in hand S3 the learner will automatically pour the water into the glass R3 because that behavior was previously reinforcedYou then gradually fade the prompt until the learner consistently picks the empty glass up with his left hand without any promptingNow that the second third and fourth components of the chain have been mastered it is time to teach the first step in the chainYou place the Dpitcher of water and empty glass on the table S1 then prompt the learner to pick up the pitcher with his right Dhand R1 praising him when he does soAt that point S2 has been presented and the learner will therefore complete the remainder of the taskOnce you fade the prompts the learner will execute the steps necessary to pour a glass of water whenever he sees the pitcher of water and empty glass on the table and he is thirsty7In forward chaining you teach the first component then the second component and so on moving from the front of the chain to the end during training8In using forward chaining to teach the task presented in question 4 you would begin by placing the pitcher of Dwater and empty glass on the table S1 prompting the correct response of picking up the pitcher with the right hand then providing a reinforcer such as praiseYou then fade your prompts until the individual is picking up the pitcher with his right hand without any prompts when the pitcher and glass are placed on the tableTo train Dthe second component you place the pitcher and empty glass on the table S1 and the learner will pick up the Dpitcher with his right hand R1Because the first response creates S2 pitcher in right hand glass on table you then prompt the learner to pick up the glass with his left hand R2 then provide a reinforcerYou fade the 116
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