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Midterm

chapter notes for psyb57 midterm.docx
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB57H3
Professor
Dwayne Pare
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter notes for PSB57 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY 15 respectively1 The science of the mindamnesia because of brain damage it is the loss of ability to remember certain materials HM was a patient who had memory lost after his brain surgery that was carried out to control his epilepsy He survived for more than 50 years after his operation he had no trouble remembering events prior to his surgery but was unable to recall any events that occurred after his operation Henry Molaison identified as HM died in 2008Cognitive psychology scientific study of the acquisition retention and use of knowledge cognitive psychology is roughly 50 years old revolutionizing new research methods for better understanding1 Introspection Willhelm Wundtfather of experimental psychologystudy of conscious mental events such as feelings thoughts perception and recollection that is studied by looking within oneself and observing and recording content of our mental lives and the sequence of our own experiences Introspects had to be trained and given vocabulary to describe exactly what they observe They were to report on their experiences with minimum interpretation DRAWBACK some thoughts are unconscious providing that it was a limited research toolcan only study conscious events gives no insight into unconscious material There are no methods to test its claim to separate truth from false claims2 Behaviourism John B Watsonstudies how behaviour changes in response to particular stimuli Psychologist believed that a great deal of behaviour could be understood in terms of learning theory It was advised that wemust not study beliefs memories and so on as they cannot be studied scientifically but it has proven that we must consider them if we want to understand the pivotal meanings to life As how someone interprets or understands a situation and how these events help to guide their behaviour stimuli that are physically different from each other have similar effectsstimuli that are physically similar to each other have different effects 3 Transcendental method Immanual Kantmaking references to the mental world ie perception understanding and intentionsBegin with observable facts and then work backwards from these observationsas you read you are relying on a form of memory as your forge ahead it is the memory that you use for information that you are actively working on It holds information in a accessible form available whenever you need it Its size capacity is fairly small only holding small amounts of information One way to measure working memory is through aspan testasking a person to repeat back of a list of 4 words than 567 The average letter span for most people78 This also provides a transcendental method of how we can view unseen memory through observable performances Q What causes working memory A When we measure peoples test span they usually get the letters or words mixed up They report letters they hadnt heard at all and substitute one letter for a word that sounds similar Having heard F theyll report S Having heard B theyll report V We get similar soundalike confusion if the letters are presented visually This finding provides us with clues about the working memory nature Working memory is not a single entity but has several partsworkingmemory system central executive BOSSthe part that runs the show and does the real work It is helped out by aof low level assistants These assistants provide storage while the central executive does all the core work such as analyze and interpret whatsoever Information that is needed is stored by the assistants therefore allowing the boss to focus on more important taskArticulatory rehearsal loopmost important assistant it is involved with the process of subvocalization silent speech It produces aor representation in the phonological buffer auditory image created in the inner earThe executive is not needed to maintain any of these material and is free to focus on other taskConcurrent articulation task repeating TahTahTah while taking the span test The mechanisms that are needed to control sub vocal speech are in use therefore putting a restrain on theof items that can be stored by the assistants 45 items With concurrent articulation the rehearsal loop is not available as inner speech as outer speech is being produced This does however eliminate soundalike errors as it blocks out the rehearsal loop and it is the loop that causes the soundalike to arisepp2326 for conclusion
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