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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michael Inzlicht

LECTURE NOTES LECTURE 7 CH. 6 - Context dependent learning or state dependent learning - The more connections you make the better your learning Learning as Preparation for Retrieval - Learning connects new material with existing memory - These retrieval paths help us learn new material - Context-dependent learning – the context that you’re in assists your ability to recall something based on if it’s the same type or different type of context (in/congruent) o Dependent on the state one is in during acquisition When they are tested again they can be tested on land or water and what they found was that ppl who learned the info on learned recalled the info better on land and the opposite with water - Context reinstatement or re-creating the context presented during learning, improvement memory performance i.e. divers, noisy environment, smells o Psychological context is key, not physical context – just thinking about where you were when you were studying for example can help you o i.e in class where you learn the material helps you remember the material - Fisher & Craik (1977) o Participants told to remember the second word of a word pair that was semantically related or rhymed o During testing, the prime words were presented as cues or hints o Either gave them a word that rhymed with the other word or that was semantically related o The deeper the processing the better the recall o Context reinstatement – your brought back to the material your learned and now better to recall it Encoding Specificity - Remembering something within a specific context - Encoding – how that info is brought in - Specificity – specific context - Different types of hints will elicit better piano i.e. the man ___ the piano - Explains why only one interpretation will be drawn o If its related to the context it helps retrieval Spreading Activation - Spreading activation travels from one node to another, via the associate link - Similar to neurons – input to reach a threshold, causing firing - i.e. feature nets - network suggests an explanation for why hints help is remember - state-dependent learning and context reinstatement (Learning) Context  material Testing Normal cues better (with context) retrieval Different Forms of Memory Testing - recall o generate with or w/o a cue o “What was the name of the restaurant that we went to”? o Requires search through memory - Recognition o Decide if an item is the right one LECTURE NOTES o “is that the name of the restaurant” o Can rely on source memory, similar to recall - If source memory is available, recognition responsible similar in mechanism to recall i.e. “yes i saw this word before” - In other cases, recognition response are based on a feeling of familiarity i.e. “these feels familiar, so i must have seen it recently” - i.e. with multiple choice questions it better to read the question and try to recall the answer before looking at the options o recall and then recollection is better than just recollection on its own o if you read the question over again and your unsure about the answer, you should go with the first answer b/c familiarity w/o recollection is your best bet - familiarity i.e. “this feels familiar, so i must have seen it recently” - source memory and familiarity are also distinguishable neuronanatomically - participant asked to judge whether a particular item was encountered (“remember”) or if they had a feeling of familiarity (“know”) - subsequent familiarity effects – of the rhinal cortex was especially activated during encoding, then the stimulus was likely to seem familiar when viewed later on - subsequent recollection effects – if the hippocampus was especially activated during encoding, then later on the participant was likely to recollect having seen that stimulus Implicit Memory - indirect memory tests o look at how a second encounter yields different responses than the first - memory w/o awareness - explicit memory is memory with awareness - repetition improves memory - word stem – shows you a few letters and you have to fill in the blank - results lie these lead to the distinction b/w two kinds of memory - explicit memory o direct memory testing such as recall or recognition o conscious - implicit memory o indirect memory testing, such as a priming task o unconscious - “false fame” study by Jacob o Shown a list of fictitious names; later shown a list of famous ppl and fictitious names o Asked to rate fame o Some fictitious names rated as famous - Illusion of truth – an effect of implicit memory in which claims that are familiar end up seeming more plausible o In one study demonstrating illusion of truth - Statements that were heard before—even those that had been labeled as false—were later judged to be more credible than sentences never heard before o Things that you have been primed for but not sourced for are more familiar o People rate those who they see more often as more attractive o Familiarity breeds something more positive and truthful - Source confusion - Eyewitness may select someone from a photo lineup based only on familiarity, not on actual recall o Not being able to recall the source of where the info comes from Theoretical Treatment of implicit memory - People may be influenced by memories that they are not aware of o May have familiarity w/o episodic memory o May be influenced w/o a feeling of familiarity - Implicit memory involved processing fluency – an important in the speed or ease of processing o Recently encountering items are easier to recognize a second time o Processing fluency is the ease at which you can process the information  May underlie the feeling of familiarity for stimuli that we have previously encountered LECTURE NOTES Difference b/w top and bottom is whether we manipulate perceiving easier Amnesia - The distinction b/w explicit and implicit memory is also supported by evidence from cases of brain damage - Amnesia is a disruption of memory due to brain damage - Retrograde amnesia = loss of memory before disruption - Anterograde amnesia = inability to form new long-term memories o No loss of existing memories o Damage to the hippocampus and surrounding brain regions o Difficulty forming new long-term memories - H.M has severe epilepsy and severe anterograde amnesia, unable to form new long-term memories - Korsakoff’s syndrome = deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1) because of alcoholism  severe anterograde amnesia - Amnesia supports the distinction b/w explicate and implicit memory o Anterograde amnesia affects explicit memory, while implicit memory is preserved - For instance, in 1911 Swiss neurologist Édouard Claparède performed an informal experiment with a Korsakoff-syndrome patient o When introducing himself to the patient, he hid a pin in his hand, which pricked the patient o Later, the patient could not explicitly remember Claparède but refused to shake his hand, saying, “Sometimes pins are hidden in people’s hands.” - Amnesic patients demonstrating preserved implicit memories without explicit memory o Knowing the answer to a trivia question the second time around o Preferring a musical melody that they had been exposed to before - Improvements in procedural learning o Someone with amnesia can potentially learn to ride a bike - Double dissociation o Impairment of explicit with preserved implicit (HM) o Impairment of implicit with preserved explicit (?) - Hippocampus damage o Fear with no memory - Amygdala damage o Memory with no fear In your world - What you are learning about memory is relevant for how to memorize the material in this course - At one level, you may want to learn the material in a manner that prepares you for the form of retrieval that is required for your exams - To make memory even stronger, the best strategy is to employ multiple perspectives, creating multiple retrieval paths for the material you want to learn LECTURE 8 CH. 7 Memory Errors - Hypothesis regarding memory errors interacts with existing knowledge and new info Existing knowledge – event –time existing knowledge Intrusion errors come in and effect existing knowledge - Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. o Read the list “bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake, snooze…” LECTURE NOTES o Participants recall “sleep” even though it was not on the list o Recall words that was not in the original list o Happens only when the word was related to other words on the list - Schematic knowledge = typical or frequent o Help us remember an event o Most things happen in a general pattern o If things change or very from the schema they can produce memory errors o Memories are regularized o If its ignored or you didn’t pay attention can produce memory errors - Schemata can help us when remembering an event - However, schemata can also cause us to make errors when remembering an event o For example, you might remember seeing roll up the rim posters in Tim Hortons even if there were none o Memories are regularized - A classic demonstration of the effects of schemata on memory was provided by Frederick Bartlett (1932) o Test condition = retell story o Theme conditioned more likely to retell story but made more intrusion errors o NS made less intrusion errors and didn’t have as good a memory - Regularization via schemata o Books are remembered in an office o Footage of a plane crash is remembered - Another line of research has investigated the misinformation effect Event – misleading information –time misleading information becomes part of event - Other studies have shown that false autobiographical memories can be implanted, such as participants believing they had become ill eating egg salad as children - Entire events can be implanted into memory o Imagery can be very compelling o Can create whole memories around images - Memory confidence o There is little relationship between our confidence in our memories and their accuracy o Confidence can be related to feedback you receive o Feedback affected confidence but not accuracy o i.e. very easy to convince a child or what happened Avoiding Memory Errors - Other studies have demonstrated cases in which memories were surprisingly accurate - What factors determine whether a memory will be accurate or subject to errors? - The feelings of “remembering” and “knowing” o Remembering is more likely with real memories o Knowing is less likely o However, there are no guarantees o R = episodic; more likely real memories o K = less likely - Retention interval—the amount of time that elapsed between initial learning and subsequent retrieval o Schematic knowledge fills in older memories, making them less reliable o As time passes memory fades and specific details of memory become filled with schematic knowledge o Tend to think of the past as more normal o Weaken over time o Takes longer to relearn info after a longer retention interval - Why memories may weaken with time o Decay—memories may fade or erode o Interference—newer learning may disrupt older memories o Retrieval failure—the memory is intact but cannot be accessed i.e. TOT phenomena - The deeper we process something the better we remember it but its also more likely to have intrusion errors - Misremembering or forgetting details allows us to think more abstractly - Hypnosis makes people more open to misinformation - Memories are not recovered, they are created = exaggerated influences of what happened - Instead, the method of recovering “lost” memories that is the most grounded in research is to provide a diverse set of retrieval cues o Context reinstatement LECTURE NOTES o Visualization - Summary of memory errors o People can confidently remember things that never happened o Memories become embedded in schematic knowledge o Schemata provide organization and retrieval paths o Forgetting may be a consequence of how our general knowledge is formed: Specific episodes merge in memory to form schemata Autobiographical Memory - Refers to memory of episodes and events in a person’s own life - Better memory if the info is about ourselves - The self-reference effect—better memory for information relevant to oneself - The self-schema is a set of beliefs and memories about oneself - As with general memories, memories about oneself are subject to errors o Memories about ourselves are a mix of genuine recall and schema-based reconstruction o Our autobiographical memories are also biased to emphasize consistency and positive traits - Emotion and memory o When emotion is tied to memory, you remember that info better o Emotional event  amygdala better consolidation o Can help you better remember event, but stress can lead to mid-remembering - Causes of better memory for emotional events o Narrowing of attention o More rehearsal - Flashbulb memories = specific events that stick into memory o Some contain large-scale errors o Typical for highly emotional events o If it matters to your life, flash bulb memories are more accurate - Other flashbulb memories are well remembered o Consequentiality—whether it matters to a person’s life o increases rehearsal and thus memory - traumatic memories o physiological arousal increases consolidation o can be lost i.e. head injuries o most of the time the vivid event is accurate - repression o Traumatic memories, can be “lost” and then “recovered” o Lost memories could be lost voluntarily or due to ordinary retrieval failure o However, memories may be due to misinformation - Permastore o Permanent memories o May be aided by rehearsal and continuing to learn o Most memorable period of life = high school through early college - Certain principles of autobiographical memory reflect more general memory principles o The importance of rehearsal o The formation of generalized schemata from individual memory episodes o The potential for intrusion errors and susceptibility to misinformation - Other principles of autobiographical memory may be distinct o The role of emotion in shaping autobiographical memory may be less applicable to other kinds of memory LECTURE 9 CH. 8 Definitions - Building blocks for general knowledge - Simple but complex to explain - If you can have an exception to your definition, how can you define basic words - Wittgenstein – simple concepts have no definition - Family resemblance o Ideal member – what something is; general idea o Atypical member – not very general; different LECTURE NOTES  Central ideal member in which most family fits - The more characteristics that a concept has the more likely we are to believe it is part of the category Prototypes and Typicality Effects - Prototypes – one that possesses all the characteristic features o On average of various category members that have been encountered  Differ across individuals, countries  i.e. prototype of a house for someone in the US and Japan o graded membership – some members are closer to the prototype o fuzzy bound
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