PSYB65 Lecture Notes.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYB65H3
Professor
Zachariah Campbell
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYB65: Lecture 1 – History of Neuropsychology “Psychology has a long past, but a short history” – Hermann Ebbinghaus  Written record of the understanding of our selves is limited, only 10,000 years Humans have developed to be the only species that think about dying and death. Trephination  Surgical procedure that a hole is made in the skull, and some people survive.  Reasons: medical or magical? o After trauma, swelling occurs and removing part of the skull can help during the healing process. o Maybe they were trying to understand psychological phenomena but actually going into the skull. Modern Neurosurgery  Craniotomy/ectomy  removing the brain flap (same idea) o Depressed skull fractures which is pushing the bone into the brain, removing the bone helps as treatment o ICP monitoring/treatment  swelling in the brain and relieving the pressure  Subdural/epidural hematomas o Deep brain stimulation for people with Parkinson’s Biological Basis of Human Experience/Behaviour 2 themes in Western:  Cephalocentric – behaviours are caused from inside the brain o Alcmaeon of Croton o Hippocrates o Plato  Cardiocentric – behaviours are caused from inside the heart  it has nothing to do with the heart but it is part of our culture o Empedocles of Acragas o Aristotle Western Philosophy  Philosophy  Natural Science Ancient Egyptian, Greek & Roman Thinkers  Nature and locus of the mind  very based on what they were exposed to at the time  Advances in mathematics and philosophy Early Greek Medicine  Prior to 500 BCE, medical practice was controlled by priests / Templar physicians Alcmaeon of Croton  Objectively dissected animals  Established medical school to stop priests, etc.  Holistic approach  if sick, there’s some sort of imbalance in the universe or their universe Hippocrates (460-377 BCE)  Founder of Modern Medicine  Hippocrates oath – “First, do no harm”.  Brain hypothesis; Believed the brain was the seed of behaviour and experience. He based it on his own experience Eg. observing getting someone get hit in the head.  Contralateral organization in the brain  Right side of the brain affects left side of the body, left side of the brain affects the right side of the body.  Epilepsy; he believed it is a natural cause, not divine cause.  Believed the brain is the most powerful organ of the human body. Aristotle (384-322 BCE)  Philosopher  Conceptualized “Tabula Rasa” – we all start out as blank slates  NOT true  Psyche: o Nonmaterial o Responsible for human thought, perception and emotion o Theological approach o Psyche = “Mind” o Position of Mentalism – thinking about the mind as an abstract concept, NOT tissue.  First true Empiricist – everything is learned through experience; this is how we become who we are.  Cardiocentric philosopher; put forth that the heart was the seed of though, perception and emotion. o Eg. Belief that when they take out the heart, they die. Heart races because of emotion.  Life: Ladder of Creation – understood life as a continuum or hierarchy o Darwin used this understanding  ancestor Galen (130-200 ACE)  Physician/Anatomist  Brain hypothesis; brain responsible for thought, emotion and perception  Ventricular localization; thought the ventricles pushing through allowed for thought, emotion and perception.  Bodily fluids/humors; thought the health and balance of the body was due to these fluids  dominated for about 1000 years. Rene Descartes (1596-1650)  Philosopher, he’s a thinker “I think, therefore I am”  How can nonmaterial mind produce movement in the material body?  Dualism – the mind and the body are separate but interact  Mind o Nonmaterial o Decides on bodily/machine movements  Body o Material o Analogous to a machine (reflexive)  In Paris, he saw a statue that moved due to hydraulic pressure. o He believed that ventricles of the brains and connectivity of tubes of fluid allowed for behaviour to become animated.  Similar to machines o He attributed this to “The Pineal Gland” (a tiny structure which releases substances at the centre of the brain)  one part that isn’t split down the middle.  FALSE There will never be another Einstein, never another Darwin because before the technological age, people were allowed to study things and thought about things alone. Today, the world is an entire brain, and people collectively create ideas. Lecture 2: Introduction to Neuropsychology Descartes: Pineal gland an essential structure in the central nervous system, it was located in the ventricle system  necessary for the interaction to occur. Roman Empire Dissolution of the roman empire; it was a secular nation; it was very successful. The fall of the Roman empire was known as the Dark Ages; no recorded history of any findings. History of Neuropsychology Dark Ages Psychological questions were often the province of religion 12 Century Cultural and economic revival Establishment of universities  first universities were born into religious institutions. rd Prior to Renaissance, there was a period of terrible strife  the Black Plague were 1/3 of the population were killed. 15 & 16 Centuries Periods of exploration, discovery, artistic achievement  Columbus, DaVinci – cast of the human ventricles, etc. Invention of Mass Printing*  Johann Gutenberg developed the first mass printing press  he spread the word of God Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Astronomer “The Place of Human Beings in the Universe” He countered the idea that the Earth was the centre of the Universe AKA Geocentric viewpoint using objective findings. He stated that the earth (and other planets) rotated around the Sun AKA Heliocentric viewpoint He published it on his death bed, so when others came to punish him, he’d already be dead. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) Astronomer Dialogue on the Two Greatest Systems of the World, the Ptolemaic and the Copernican (1632) Character: Simplicio (he wrote his findings as a type of dialogue) He adopted the Heliocentric viewpoint. He perfected the telescope and could make more observations and findings. When he published his work 1633 - Tried and found guilty by the Vatican Avoided torture through indefinite house arrest and became almost totally blind 1992 - Pope John Paul II acknowledged that the Vatican had erred in convicting Galileo Utilized method of manipulating, defining and measuring variables.  He dropped items from the leaning tower of Pisa and wrote about gravity Advocate for freedom of inquiry  you could study what you wanted without worrying about authority Andreas Vesalius (1514-1727) Anatomist Successor to Hippocrates and Galen He dissected the brain, using amazing cuts, and found that the ventricular system was important in mind vs. behaviour interface. William Harvey (1578-1657) Physician & Scientist Function of the heart as an organ  untill this point in time, heart was thought as the “mind” and he showed that it was just a organ that pumped blood. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) Theory for the Presence of Mind  Language Test Action Test for children, mentally ill, etc. Negative Outcome (of the test)  Bad results were thought to mean that these people didn’t have a mind.  Treatment of children, animals, mentally ill resulted in inhumane treatment  vivisection – dissecting animals while they were alive, and the animals reaction were mechanical Descartes skull was separate from his body  his dualistic viewpoint was true even after his death Behavior • Cladogramf the Human Brain & Behaviour Origins of the Human Brain and Behavior Cladogram – Graph that illustrates the relative time of origin of various closely related groups We all have a common ancestor.ups Primate Order L2 16  Excellent color vision, enhanced depth perception  Hand-eye coordination  Females produce one infant per pregnancy  Can operate the world with their upper extremities  Females typically produce one offspring at a time  more time is invested in their growth Hominids  Humanlike ancestors that diverged from the ape lineage  Changes in hand structure and brain structure Species Comparison Why Study Nonhuman Animals?  Brain similarities and differences in humans and animals provide insight to brain-behavior relationships  Animals have less complex anatomy  a lot easier to understand meaning they could represent the earlier development of humans Brain Evolution  Genetic basis of behavioral can be studied in animals with short lifespans (Eg. fruit flies)  Identify how the brain has evolved Brain Evolution Sophistication of behaviour evolved.  Eg. fish having very basis need and behaviours  Eg. Parrots able to mimic human speech Questions Addressed by Studying Nonhuman Animals Understanding brain mechanisms  Uses cross species comparisons to understand basic brain function for a given behavior L2 19 Designing animal models of human neurological disorders  Researchers produce a human neurological disorder an in animal o Eg. dementia in older dogs  Cause and treatment for the disease can be examined through manipulation of variables o Eg. box apparatus to remember where something was kept as a test for dementia Describing the phylogenetic development of the brain  Looks at animals in their environments to see how the environment shapes evolution of the brain and behavior  Makes comparisons between humans and other mammals  Differences in brains and behaviors provide insight into how those differences appeared Human Origins Hominid Evolution  Evolution is not linear  Humans today are the only surviving member of the hominid branch Human Evolution  Studied through archeological, biochemical and genetic, and behavioral evidence Human Evolution: Archeological Research Examine the bones, skulls, and habitat of hominids to reconstruct features of their brains and behaviors with limitations. How did the brain evolve with those artifacts? The brain was accommodating the challenges in the environment with a sophisticated behavioural expression. Human Evolution: Biochemical and Genetic Research Examines the amino acid sequence of a cellular protein in different species to determine when species diverged from each other.  provides more evidence about our ancestral line. Relatedness of species can be determined by comparing their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)  Humans and Chimps have 99% of their genes in common Human Evolution: Behavioral Research Compares behavior of one species to another species Jane Goodall  Observed behavior in chimpanzees  Found strikingly similar behavior in chimpanzees and humans  Great research models because they’re so similar to humans but banned because they have similar human experiences. Stages of Human Evolution Four steps 1. An upright posture in which hands were free 2. Extensive tool use 3. A traveling life style 4. An elaborate culture Origins of Humans H. Neanderthals have on average larger brains than H. Sapiens but it’s relative to body size. Intelligence correlates with the brain components not size. Stages of Human Evolution Australopithecus: Upright Posture  Discovered by Raymond Dart  Lived in eastern Africa  Walked upright “East Side Theory”  Yves Coppens  Production of the Great Rift Valley in Africa o Apes lived to the west unchanged o In the east apes had to evolve rapidly to new environment Homo habilis: Tool use  Discovered by Louis Leakey and Olduvai Gorge  Found in Tanzania  Used stone tools  Appeared after climatic change  Were scavengers and involved the entire community to butcher and carry animals Homo Erectus: The Traveler  Significantly larger brain than its ancestors  Remains found in east Africa, Java, and China  some sort of migration Homo Sapiens: Elaborating Culture  Have various cultures, political organizations, agriculture, and economic relations  Alan Thorne and Mildred Wolpoff o Modern humans evolved from Homo Erectus  Rebecca Cann - “Out of Africa” Hypothesis o All modern people descended from “Eve” The Origins of Larger Brains Larger brains:  Use more energy, expensive to maintain  Must provide advantages in adaptations Dean Falk  Changes in blood flow in Homo erectus allowed for increases in brain size Encephalization Quotient Encephalization Quotient (EQ)  Developed by Harry Jerison  Ratio of actual brain size compared to expected brain size Average mammal has an EQ of 1.0  Greater than 1.0 bigger brain than expected  Less than 1.0 smaller brain than expected Brain size vs. body size  cats are exactly at 1, but Humans are high above 1, elephants brain size may be large but their corresponding body size resulting in almost 1. Brain is getting bigger. The Origins of Larger Brains Early hominids brain size = 440 cubic centimeters (cm3) Modern humans brain size = 1350 cm3 Rapid increase due to:  Hominids were getting larger  Brains were getting larger o The increases in size were not occurring at the same rate Changes in the Cortex As EQ increases, most of the increase of brain size occurs in the cortex Neoteny, animals Variation in Cortical Structure Areas of mammalian cortex are specialized for certain functions As areas of cortex grow and specialize they allow for the development of new behaviors  Examples: Use of the forepaws in animals, color vision in humans  Eg. Dog’s olfactory systems are larger enabling great smell Brain Size and Intelligence Is brain size related to intelligence? Is brain size related to intelligence between sexes or races? Poor correlation between brain size and intelligence between people, races and sexes Why are brain size and intelligence unrelated in the same species?  Within-species behavior is uniform  IQ tests are biased measures of intelligence  humans are limited in understanding what intelligence really is  Brain organization  Brain size is influenced by injury and environmental experience Intelligence is not higher in males, as Broca argued, because males typically have larger bodies. Structural Neuroanatomy Neuroanatomy: Finding Your Way Around the Brain Locations of layers, nuclei, and brain pathways are described by their placement with respect to other body parts, with respect to their relative locations, and with respect to viewer perspective Frequently Used Anatomical Terms Rostral – closer towards the front of the nose Caudal – closer towards the tail to the spinal cord Dorsal – the top or superior surface, it follows along the central nervous system to the brain to the spinal cord Ventral – the bottom surface, and the more anterior aspect of the spinal cord Anterior or frontal Posterior = Caudal, towards the back Lateral – sides towards the ears Medial – closer to the centre of the body Frequently Used Brain Sections Coronal - half way down Horizontal – half way across Sagittal – down the middle from the nose to the cortex and back Functional Divisions of the Nervous L2 51 Neuroanatomy: Finding Your Way Around the Brain System Symmetrical Organization  Structures on the same side are Ipsilateral  Structures on the opposite side are Contralateral  Structures that lie in both hemispheres are Bilateral Structures that are close together are Proximal Structures that are far apart are Distal Efferent – Movement away from the brain Afferent – Movement toward the brain An Overview of Nervous System Structure and Function L2 55 Functional Divisions of the Nervous System  Central nervous system (CNS) o Brain and Spinal Cord  Somatic nervous system (SNS) o Spinal and cranial nerves  Autonomic nervous system (ANS) o Balances the internal organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves Support and Protection CNS  Brain enclosed in the skull  Spinal cord encased in bony vertebrae  Meninges o Three layers of membranes inside the skull and vertebrae L2 57 o Dura Mater – thick like vinyl o Arachnoid Membrane – spider like web of material that encases the vascular parts of the brain o Pia Mater – like cellophane  Cushioned by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that continuously circulates. It provides a buoyant atmosphere for the brain.  Hydrocephalus PNS  Lies outside of bony encasements and protection of the meninges  More vulnerable to injury, because it doesn’t have protection Blood Supply Two carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain Connect at the base of the brain and branch off into the:  Anterior Cerebral Artery  Middle Cerebral Artery  Posterior Cerebral Artery Lecture 3: Structural Neuroanatomy Chapter 10 NOT included as testable material. Make sure to log on to Neuroscience for bonus marks  access code is available on blackboard Check out the Companion website – textbook outline, quizzes and flashcards Video: http://www.ted.com/talks/vs_ramachandran_the_neurons_that_shaped_civilization.html  One man puts it into perspective. A 3 pound lump of flesh can contemplate the universe, have emotion, produce movements, etc. There is quick revolution in terms of our abilities specifically in humans. Just by learning through mirror neurons (watching other people do things), neurons are activated, and acquisition of skills is enabled. Also, empathizing with other people also cause our neurons to fire, but we don’t actually experience it BUT if the arm is anesthetized, then one can actually experience the feeling of another person being touched.  Humans are literally connected through neurons. (Continuation from the last lecture) Functional Divisions of the Nervous System Central Nervous System – brain & spinal cord Somatic Nervous System – highway between the central nervous system and the rest of the body Autonomic Nervous System – fight or flight systems and the regulation of the body Thick skull around our brain emphasizes how much protection our brain needs. The spinal cord is an intricate connection of vertebral segments. It’s exposed to enable movement, but still quite protected. Meninges form around the brain and spinal cord, continuously. It is the medium with which we have the cerebral vascular system providing nutrients and removing waste products from the brain. Support and Protection CNS  Hydrocephalus – the ventricles are blocked during developmental phase or injuries/cancer, so the building pressure on the surrounding brain tissue can cause symptoms such as loss of consciousness or even death. PNS is continuous with CNS; receiving and affecting the environmental stimuli Blood Supply for the Brain:  2 pairs arteries that perfuse the brain: o 2 from the back: Basilar arteries – Carotid arteries o 2 from the front: internal carotid artery - Vertebral arteries  Connect at the base of the brain and branch of into the: o Anterior Cerebral Artery  Along the middle of the brain o Middle Cerebral Artery  Lateral aspect of each hemisphere  Stroke: language deficits o Posterior Cerebral Artery  Provides perfusion to the occipital lobe & the lateral and ventral aspect to the ventral lobes. o These work to provide nutrients to those parts of the brain. NOT covering developmental neuroscience (This week’s Lecture) Neurons and Glia Neural Stem Cells  Undifferentiated  Capacity for self-renewal Progenitor Cells  Develop from stem cells  Give rise to blasts, primitive types of nervous system cells Blasts  Develop into neurons or glia 4 Results: Interneuron – common in the spinal cord Projecting neuron – commonly found in the brain Oligdendroglia – within the CNS Astrocyte Sensory Neurons  Biopolar Neuron  Somatosensory Neuron Interneuron  Link up sensory and motor neurons  Reflex arc that does not have mediation from the brain itself Motor Neurons  Project to muscles from the motor strip B) Interneurons  Stellate cell in the thalamus o It’s detailed dendrites; it’s connected to many different neurons  Pyramidal cell in the cortex o Dendrites; Arburization – a fine branching structure at the end of a neuron  Purkinje cell in the cerebellum o Extremely detailed dendrites The structure of the neurons are in this way to enable a specific function. Glial Cells (just know the different types, but know function for the stars):  Ependymal  Astrocyte  Microglial  Olingodendroglial*  Schwann* *Difference between Olingodendroglial & Schwann  O is found only in the central nervous system, S is found only in the peripheral nervous system. Gray, White and Reticular Matter Gray Matter  Colour from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies White Matter  Colour from axons covered in an insulating layer of glial cells Reticular Matter  Colour and appearance from cell bodies and axons; mix of both colours Layers, Nuclei, Nerves and Tracts Gray matter can be divided into layers or nuclei. Layers or Nuclei  Well-defined group of cell bodies  Most common nuclei: Basal nuclei  Nuclei – large globs that perform functions  they are distributed closely to perform functions as groups  layers Tracts  White matter pathways or large collection of axons projecting to or away from a layer or nucleus within the CNS; CNS & PNS are continuous with these tracts. Nerves  Fibers and fiber pathways that enter and leave the CNS Development of the brain:  As the embryo develops it starts to differentiate in the front end  forming our sophisticated structures. *don’t have to know details. The Origin and Development of the Central Nervous System Ventricles  Hollow pockets within the brain filled with CSF  Numbered 1-4 o Lateral ventricles (1 & 2) o 3 & 4 ventricles extend into the brainstem and spinal cord  continuous with the inside & outside of the brain The Spinal Cord Spinal cord structure and the spinal nerves  Receives fibers from the afferent sensory receptors  Send efferent fibers to control muscles  If fibers are on the anterior aspect of the spinal cord, the brain is sending information out to it.  30 spinal cord segments divided into 5 regions: o Cervical (8) o Thoracic (12) o Lumbar (5) o Sacral (5) o Coccygeal Segment  Damage in these segments cause lots of problems One cannot necessarily have numbness across the continual area, it would be parts that follow a logical segment. Dorsal Root  Strand of afferent fibers entering the spinal cord  Carrier sensory information to the brain Central Root  Strand of efferent fibers leaving the spinal cord  Carries motor information to the body Cross section of a spinal cord:  This may occur during a reflex situation, Eg. pulling away from a hot stove.  Spinal Cord Function and the Spinal Nerves Bell-Magendie Law  Francois Magendie and Charles Bell  Principle that the dorsal part of the spinal cord is sensory and the ventral part of the spinal cord is motor Spinal cord is capable of complex actions Reflexes  Specific movements elicited by specific stimuli  the reflexes cause the muscles to go in one direction either withdraw or extend.  Eg. Stimulation of pain receptors = Flexion (withdraw), Stimulation of fine touch = Extension (extend) Connections Between Central and Somatic Nervous System Cranial Nerves  12 pairs, overseen by the brain  can have afferent functions, efferent functions or both Where the nerves are connected to the face  Not too much detail in the Cranial Nerves: Autonomic Nervous System Connections Two Divisions; they oppose one another (when one is on the other is off):  Sympathetic o Arouses the body for action  When activated, the thorax system shuts down (the digestion shuts down), but heart rate increases (more breathing). o Fight or flight Eg. running away from a large dog o Spinal nerves in the thoracic and lumber regions are connected to the sympathetic ganglia  Parasympathetic o Calms the body down o Rest and digest o Connects with parasympathetic ganglia near target organs  We need this because if one or the other don’t shut down, constant sympathetic system harms your body. The Brainstem Three regions:  Diencephalon  Midbrain  Hindbrain Produces more complex movements than the spinal cord. The more vital functions are you move down the spinal cord. Hindbrain Cerebellum  Surface fathered into folia  Coordinates and helps learn skilled movements  Very sensitive to the affects of alcohol = problems walking Reticular Formation  Maintains general arousal  Formation of the brain cells that’s responsible for sleep, wake and arousal  Makes sure that you shut down during sleep, so we don’t act out our dreams o Problems would be caused by some sort of trauma Pons & Medulla  Serve many functions, including waking, sleeping and locomotion Midbrain Tectum  Located dorsally  “roof”  sensory input from the eyes and ears Tegmentum  Located ventrally  “floor”  Composed of the superior colliculi, input from the eyes (visual), & inferior colliculi, input from the ears (audition)  Colliculi mediate orientation of movement to sensory input Red Nucleus  Limb movements Substania Nigra (means dark because the structure is dark)  Reward and initiation of movement  Clinical syndrome, Parkinson’s disease is associated with it; they have difficulty initiating and coordinating movement Periacqueductal Gray Matter  Species-typical behaviours Eg. sexual behaviour  Modulating pain response Lecture 4: An Introduction to Human Neuropsychology NTK is all ready to go, first activity is due Sunday, October 6 . Diencephalon Hypothalamus  Interacts with the pituitary gland  Participates in nearly all aspects of motivated behavior  Involved in host activities: hunger, thirst Epithalamus  Poorly understood; Biorhythms, hunger, thirst Thalamus  Relays sensory information to appropriate targets  Relays information between cortical areas  Relays information between forebrain and brainstem Forebrain Three main structures:  Basal Ganglia Subcortical  Limbic System  Cerebral Cortex LEC4 3 Basal Ganglia  Collection of nuclei that includes the: o Putamen o Globus Pallidus o Caudate Nucleus  Supports stimulus-response learning  Functions in sequencing movements  These form 3-d type of format Diseases of the Basal Ganglia  Huntington's Chorea o Genetic disorder o Cell death in the basal ganglia o Involuntary “dance like” movements LEC4 8  Parkinson’s Disease o Projection from the substantia nigra (small group of cells with dark presentation) to the basal ganglia dies o Rhythmical tremors in hands and legs o Rigid movement and difficulty maintaining balance  Start shuffling their feet  Pill rolling  Diseases of the Basal Ganglia o Tourette’s Syndrome – inability to control one’s behaviour in a socially appropriate way  Eg. yelling, no social function, motor ticks Basal ganglia diseases are disorders of controlling movement, not producing movement Limbic System (limbic lobe)  They are associated with forming memories. Amygdala, specially related to emotional memories; overly active with PTSD. o Amygdala o Hippocampus o Septum o Cingulate Cortex (cingulate gyrus) Neocortex (cerebral cortex)  Has expanded the most during evolution  Comprises 80% of the human brain  Six layers involved in different levels of processing *don’t have to know details*  Two cerebral hemispheres, four lobes EXAM: pictures such as these with blanks Fissures, Sulci, and Gyri Fissure LEC4 12  A cleft in the cortex that is deep enough to indent the ventricles Sulci  A shallow cleft in the cortex Gyri  A ridge in the cortex Organization of the Cortex in Relation to its Inputs and Outputs Projection Map  Map of the location of the inputs and outputs to the cortex Primary Areas (allows conscious & collective experience)  Frontal lobe - Motor functions  Parietal lobe (behind the central sulcus) - Body senses  Temporal lobe - Auditory functions  Occipital lobe - Visual functions Secondary Areas  Adjacent to primary areas (involved in solitary or isolated function)  Receive input from the primary areas and provide additional processing  Engaged in interpreting sensory input or organizing movements Tertiary Areas (Association Cortex) LEC4 16  Located between secondary areas o Largest area is in the parietal lobe  Mediate complex activities Cellular Organization of the Cortex Cytoarchitectonic Map  Map based on the organization, structure, and distribution of cortical cells  Brodmann’s Map o Most widely used cytoarchitectonic map o Shows that cells closer together tend to perform the same functions Connections Between Cortical Areas LEC4 19 Neocortical regions are connected by four types of axon projections:  Long connections between one lobe and another o Fibers going from the white matter to parietal lobe  Relatively short connections between one part of a lobe and another o U-shaped fibers connecting gyri  Interhemispheric connections o Cerebral hemispheres communicate through the corpus callosum  Connections through the thalamus o Small bands of fibers where these structures communicate with one another *Don’t need to know where the tracts & fibers are, just know what they are and the type of function* The Crossed Brain Brain has contralateral organization  Each symmetrical half responds to sensory stimulation from the contralateral side or controls musculature on the contralateral side Decussations  Crossings of sensory or motor fibers along the center of the nervous system  Largest is in the lower brainstem where white matter pathways cross over Neuroimaging Procedures LEC4 23 Video: why do we study brain structure & function?  Wisconsin card-sorting task  Healthy twin shows
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