PSYB65: Lecture 1 – History of Neuropsychology
“Psychology has a long past, but a short history” – Hermann Ebbinghaus
Written record of the understanding of our selves is limited, only 10,000 years
Humans have developed to be the only species that think about dying and death.
Surgical procedure that a hole is made in the skull, and some people survive.
Reasons: medical or magical?
o After trauma, swelling occurs and removing part of the skull can help during the healing
o Maybe they were trying to understand psychological phenomena but actually going into
Craniotomy/ectomy removing the brain flap (same idea)
o Depressed skull fractures which is pushing the bone into the brain, removing the bone
helps as treatment
o ICP monitoring/treatment swelling in the brain and relieving the pressure
o Deep brain stimulation for people with Parkinson’s
Biological Basis of Human Experience/Behaviour
2 themes in Western:
Cephalocentric – behaviours are caused from inside the brain
o Alcmaeon of Croton
Cardiocentric – behaviours are caused from inside the heart it has nothing to do with the
heart but it is part of our culture
o Empedocles of Acragas
Ancient Egyptian, Greek & Roman Thinkers
Nature and locus of the mind very based on what they were exposed to at the time
Advances in mathematics and philosophy
Early Greek Medicine
Prior to 500 BCE, medical practice was controlled by priests / Templar physicians
Alcmaeon of Croton
Objectively dissected animals
Established medical school to stop priests, etc.
Holistic approach if sick, there’s some sort of imbalance in the universe or their universe Hippocrates (460-377 BCE)
Founder of Modern Medicine
Hippocrates oath – “First, do no harm”.
Brain hypothesis; Believed the brain was the seed of behaviour and experience. He based it on
his own experience Eg. observing getting someone get hit in the head.
Contralateral organization in the brain Right side of the brain affects left side of the body,
left side of the brain affects the right side of the body.
Epilepsy; he believed it is a natural cause, not divine cause.
Believed the brain is the most powerful organ of the human body.
Aristotle (384-322 BCE)
Conceptualized “Tabula Rasa” – we all start out as blank slates NOT true
o Responsible for human thought, perception and emotion
o Theological approach
o Psyche = “Mind”
o Position of Mentalism – thinking about the mind as an abstract concept, NOT tissue.
First true Empiricist – everything is learned through experience; this is how we become who
Cardiocentric philosopher; put forth that the heart was the seed of though, perception and
o Eg. Belief that when they take out the heart, they die. Heart races because of emotion.
Life: Ladder of Creation – understood life as a continuum or hierarchy
o Darwin used this understanding ancestor
Galen (130-200 ACE)
Brain hypothesis; brain responsible for thought, emotion and perception
Ventricular localization; thought the ventricles pushing through allowed for thought, emotion
Bodily fluids/humors; thought the health and balance of the body was due to these fluids
dominated for about 1000 years.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Philosopher, he’s a thinker “I think, therefore I am”
How can nonmaterial mind produce movement in the material body?
Dualism – the mind and the body are separate but interact
o Decides on bodily/machine movements
o Analogous to a machine (reflexive)
In Paris, he saw a statue that moved due to hydraulic pressure.
o He believed that ventricles of the brains and connectivity of tubes of fluid allowed for
behaviour to become animated. Similar to machines o He attributed this to “The Pineal Gland” (a tiny structure which releases substances at
the centre of the brain) one part that isn’t split down the middle.
There will never be another Einstein, never another Darwin because before the technological age, people
were allowed to study things and thought about things alone. Today, the world is an entire brain, and
people collectively create ideas. Lecture 2: Introduction to Neuropsychology
Descartes: Pineal gland an essential structure in the central nervous system, it was located in the
ventricle system necessary for the interaction to occur.
Dissolution of the roman empire; it was a secular nation; it was very successful.
The fall of the Roman empire was known as the Dark Ages; no recorded history of any findings.
History of Neuropsychology
Psychological questions were often the province of religion
Cultural and economic revival
Establishment of universities first universities were born into religious institutions.
Prior to Renaissance, there was a period of terrible strife the Black Plague were 1/3 of the population
15 & 16 Centuries
Periods of exploration, discovery, artistic achievement
Columbus, DaVinci – cast of the human ventricles, etc.
Invention of Mass Printing*
Johann Gutenberg developed the first mass printing press he spread the word of God
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
“The Place of Human Beings in the Universe”
He countered the idea that the Earth was the centre of the Universe AKA Geocentric viewpoint using
He stated that the earth (and other planets) rotated around the Sun AKA Heliocentric viewpoint
He published it on his death bed, so when others came to punish him, he’d already be dead.
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Dialogue on the Two Greatest Systems of the World, the Ptolemaic and the Copernican (1632)
Character: Simplicio (he wrote his findings as a type of dialogue)
He adopted the Heliocentric viewpoint.
He perfected the telescope and could make more observations and findings.
When he published his work 1633 - Tried and found guilty by the Vatican
Avoided torture through indefinite house arrest and became almost totally blind
1992 - Pope John Paul II acknowledged that the Vatican had erred in convicting Galileo
Utilized method of manipulating, defining and measuring variables.
He dropped items from the leaning tower of Pisa and wrote about gravity
Advocate for freedom of inquiry you could study what you wanted without worrying about authority
Andreas Vesalius (1514-1727)
Successor to Hippocrates and Galen
He dissected the brain, using amazing cuts, and found that the ventricular system was important in mind
vs. behaviour interface.
William Harvey (1578-1657)
Physician & Scientist Function of the heart as an organ untill this point in time, heart was thought as the “mind” and he
showed that it was just a organ that pumped blood.
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Theory for the Presence of Mind
Language Test Action Test for children, mentally ill, etc.
Negative Outcome (of the test)
Bad results were thought to mean that these people didn’t have a mind.
Treatment of children, animals, mentally ill resulted in inhumane treatment vivisection –
dissecting animals while they were alive, and the animals reaction were mechanical
Descartes skull was separate from his body his dualistic viewpoint was true even after his death
• Cladogramf the Human Brain & Behaviour
Origins of the Human Brain and Behavior
Cladogram – Graph that illustrates the relative time of origin of various closely related groups
We all have a common ancestor.ups
Primate Order L2 16
Excellent color vision, enhanced depth perception
Females produce one infant per pregnancy
Can operate the world with their upper extremities
Females typically produce one offspring at a time more time is invested in their growth
Humanlike ancestors that diverged from the ape lineage
Changes in hand structure and brain structure
Why Study Nonhuman Animals?
Brain similarities and differences in humans and animals provide insight to brain-behavior
Animals have less complex anatomy a lot easier to understand meaning they could
represent the earlier development of humans Brain Evolution
Genetic basis of behavioral can be studied in animals with short lifespans (Eg. fruit flies)
Identify how the brain has evolved
Sophistication of behaviour evolved.
Eg. fish having very basis need and behaviours
Eg. Parrots able to mimic human speech
Questions Addressed by Studying Nonhuman Animals
Understanding brain mechanisms
Uses cross species comparisons to understand basic brain function for a given behavior L2 19
Designing animal models of human neurological disorders Researchers produce a human neurological disorder an in animal
o Eg. dementia in older dogs
Cause and treatment for the disease can be examined through manipulation of variables
o Eg. box apparatus to remember where something was kept as a test for dementia
Describing the phylogenetic development of the brain
Looks at animals in their environments to see how the environment shapes evolution of the
brain and behavior
Makes comparisons between humans and other mammals
Differences in brains and behaviors provide insight into how those differences appeared
Evolution is not linear
Humans today are the only surviving member of the hominid branch
Studied through archeological, biochemical and genetic, and behavioral evidence
Human Evolution: Archeological Research
Examine the bones, skulls, and habitat of hominids to reconstruct features of their brains and behaviors
with limitations. How did the brain evolve with those artifacts? The brain was accommodating the
challenges in the environment with a sophisticated behavioural expression.
Human Evolution: Biochemical and Genetic Research
Examines the amino acid sequence of a cellular protein in different species to determine when species
diverged from each other. provides more evidence about our ancestral line.
Relatedness of species can be determined by comparing their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Humans and Chimps have 99% of their genes in common
Human Evolution: Behavioral Research
Compares behavior of one species to another species
Observed behavior in chimpanzees
Found strikingly similar behavior in chimpanzees and humans
Great research models because they’re so similar to humans but banned because they have
similar human experiences.
Stages of Human Evolution
1. An upright posture in which hands were free
2. Extensive tool use
3. A traveling life style
4. An elaborate culture
Origins of Humans
H. Neanderthals have on average larger brains than H. Sapiens but it’s relative to body size. Intelligence
correlates with the brain components not size.
Stages of Human Evolution
Australopithecus: Upright Posture
Discovered by Raymond Dart
Lived in eastern Africa
“East Side Theory”
Production of the Great Rift Valley in Africa o Apes lived to the west unchanged
o In the east apes had to evolve rapidly to new environment
Homo habilis: Tool use
Discovered by Louis Leakey and Olduvai Gorge
Found in Tanzania
Used stone tools
Appeared after climatic change
Were scavengers and involved the entire community to butcher and carry animals
Homo Erectus: The Traveler
Significantly larger brain than its ancestors
Remains found in east Africa, Java, and China some sort of migration
Homo Sapiens: Elaborating Culture
Have various cultures, political organizations, agriculture, and economic relations
Alan Thorne and Mildred Wolpoff
o Modern humans evolved from Homo Erectus
Rebecca Cann - “Out of Africa” Hypothesis
o All modern people descended from “Eve”
The Origins of Larger Brains
Use more energy, expensive to maintain
Must provide advantages in adaptations
Changes in blood flow in Homo erectus allowed for increases in brain size
Encephalization Quotient (EQ)
Developed by Harry Jerison
Ratio of actual brain size compared to expected brain size
Average mammal has an EQ of 1.0
Greater than 1.0 bigger brain than expected
Less than 1.0 smaller brain than expected
Brain size vs. body size cats are exactly at 1, but Humans are high above 1, elephants brain size may be
large but their corresponding body size resulting in almost 1.
Brain is getting bigger.
The Origins of Larger Brains
Early hominids brain size = 440 cubic centimeters (cm3)
Modern humans brain size = 1350 cm3
Rapid increase due to:
Hominids were getting larger
Brains were getting larger
o The increases in size were not occurring at the same rate
Changes in the Cortex
As EQ increases, most of the increase of brain size occurs in the cortex
Variation in Cortical Structure
Areas of mammalian cortex are specialized for certain functions
As areas of cortex grow and specialize they allow for the development of new behaviors
Examples: Use of the forepaws in animals, color vision in humans
Eg. Dog’s olfactory systems are larger enabling great smell Brain Size and Intelligence
Is brain size related to intelligence?
Is brain size related to intelligence between sexes or races?
Poor correlation between brain size and intelligence between people, races and sexes
Why are brain size and intelligence unrelated in the same species?
Within-species behavior is uniform
IQ tests are biased measures of intelligence humans are limited in understanding what
intelligence really is
Brain size is influenced by injury and environmental experience
Intelligence is not higher in males, as Broca argued, because males typically have larger bodies.
Neuroanatomy: Finding Your Way Around the Brain
Locations of layers, nuclei, and brain pathways are described by their placement with respect to other
body parts, with respect to their relative locations, and with respect to viewer perspective
Frequently Used Anatomical Terms
Rostral – closer towards the front of the nose
Caudal – closer towards the tail to the spinal cord
Dorsal – the top or superior surface, it follows along the central
nervous system to the brain to the spinal cord
Ventral – the bottom surface, and the more anterior aspect of the
Anterior or frontal
Posterior = Caudal, towards the back
Lateral – sides towards the ears
Medial – closer to the centre of the body
Frequently Used Brain Sections
Coronal - half way down
Horizontal – half way across
Sagittal – down the middle from the nose to the cortex and back
Functional Divisions of the Nervous L2 51
Neuroanatomy: Finding Your Way Around the Brain System
Structures on the same side are Ipsilateral
Structures on the opposite side are
Structures that lie in both hemispheres are
Structures that are close together are Proximal
Structures that are far apart are Distal
Efferent – Movement away from the brain
Afferent – Movement toward the brain
An Overview of Nervous System Structure and Function
Functional Divisions of the Nervous System
Central nervous system (CNS)
o Brain and Spinal Cord
Somatic nervous system (SNS)
o Spinal and cranial nerves Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
o Balances the internal organs through the parasympathetic
and sympathetic nerves
Support and Protection
Brain enclosed in the skull
Spinal cord encased in bony vertebrae
o Three layers of membranes inside the skull and vertebrae L2 57
o Dura Mater – thick like vinyl
o Arachnoid Membrane – spider like web of material that encases the vascular parts of
o Pia Mater – like cellophane
Cushioned by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that continuously circulates. It provides a buoyant
atmosphere for the brain.
Lies outside of bony encasements and protection of the meninges
More vulnerable to injury, because it doesn’t have protection
Two carotid arteries and two vertebral arteries supply blood to the brain
Connect at the base of the brain and branch off into the:
Anterior Cerebral Artery
Middle Cerebral Artery
Posterior Cerebral Artery Lecture 3: Structural Neuroanatomy
Chapter 10 NOT included as testable material.
Make sure to log on to Neuroscience for bonus marks access code is available on blackboard
Check out the Companion website – textbook outline, quizzes and flashcards
One man puts it into perspective. A 3 pound lump of flesh can contemplate the universe, have
emotion, produce movements, etc. There is quick revolution in terms of our abilities
specifically in humans. Just by learning through mirror neurons (watching other people do
things), neurons are activated, and acquisition of skills is enabled. Also, empathizing with other
people also cause our neurons to fire, but we don’t actually experience it BUT if the arm is
anesthetized, then one can actually experience the feeling of another person being touched.
Humans are literally connected through neurons.
(Continuation from the last lecture)
Functional Divisions of the Nervous System
Central Nervous System – brain & spinal cord
Somatic Nervous System – highway between the central nervous system and the rest of the body
Autonomic Nervous System – fight or flight systems and the regulation of the body
Thick skull around our brain emphasizes how much protection our brain needs.
The spinal cord is an intricate connection of vertebral segments. It’s exposed to enable movement, but
still quite protected.
Meninges form around the brain and spinal cord, continuously. It is the medium with which we have the
cerebral vascular system providing nutrients and removing waste products from the brain.
Support and Protection
Hydrocephalus – the ventricles are blocked during developmental phase or injuries/cancer, so
the building pressure on the surrounding brain tissue can cause symptoms such as loss of
consciousness or even death.
PNS is continuous with CNS; receiving and affecting the environmental stimuli
Blood Supply for the Brain:
2 pairs arteries that perfuse the brain:
o 2 from the back: Basilar arteries – Carotid arteries
o 2 from the front: internal carotid artery - Vertebral arteries
Connect at the base of the brain and
branch of into the:
o Anterior Cerebral Artery
Along the middle of the
o Middle Cerebral Artery
Lateral aspect of each
Stroke: language deficits
o Posterior Cerebral Artery Provides perfusion to the occipital lobe & the lateral and ventral aspect to the
o These work to provide nutrients to those parts of the brain.
NOT covering developmental neuroscience
(This week’s Lecture)
Neurons and Glia
Neural Stem Cells
Capacity for self-renewal
Develop from stem cells
Give rise to blasts, primitive types of
nervous system cells
Develop into neurons or glia
Interneuron – common in the spinal cord
Projecting neuron – commonly found in the brain
Oligdendroglia – within the CNS
Link up sensory and motor neurons
Reflex arc that does not have mediation from the brain itself
Project to muscles from the motor strip
Stellate cell in the thalamus
o It’s detailed dendrites; it’s connected to many different neurons
Pyramidal cell in the cortex
o Dendrites; Arburization – a fine branching structure at the end of a neuron
Purkinje cell in the cerebellum
o Extremely detailed dendrites
The structure of the neurons are in this way to enable a specific function. Glial Cells (just know the different types, but know function for the stars):
*Difference between Olingodendroglial & Schwann O is found only in the central nervous system, S is
found only in the peripheral nervous system.
Gray, White and Reticular Matter
Colour from capillary blood vessels and neuronal cell bodies
Colour from axons covered in an insulating layer of glial cells
Colour and appearance from cell bodies and axons; mix of
Layers, Nuclei, Nerves and Tracts
Gray matter can be divided into layers or nuclei.
Layers or Nuclei
Well-defined group of cell bodies
Most common nuclei: Basal nuclei
Nuclei – large globs that perform functions they are distributed closely to perform functions
as groups layers
White matter pathways or large collection of axons projecting to or away from a layer or
nucleus within the CNS; CNS & PNS are continuous with these tracts.
Fibers and fiber pathways that enter and leave the CNS
Development of the brain:
As the embryo develops it starts to differentiate in the front end forming our sophisticated
structures. *don’t have to know details.
The Origin and Development of the Central Nervous System
Hollow pockets within the brain filled with CSF
o Lateral ventricles (1 & 2) o 3 & 4 ventricles extend into the brainstem and spinal cord
continuous with the inside & outside of the brain
The Spinal Cord
Spinal cord structure and the spinal nerves
Receives fibers from the afferent sensory receptors
Send efferent fibers to control muscles
If fibers are on the anterior aspect of the spinal cord, the
brain is sending information out to it.
30 spinal cord segments divided into 5 regions:
o Cervical (8)
o Thoracic (12)
o Lumbar (5)
o Sacral (5)
o Coccygeal Segment
Damage in these segments cause lots of problems
One cannot necessarily have numbness across the continual area,
it would be parts that follow a logical segment.
Strand of afferent fibers entering the spinal cord
Carrier sensory information to the brain
Strand of efferent fibers leaving the spinal cord
Carries motor information to the body
Cross section of a spinal cord:
This may occur during a reflex situation, Eg. pulling away from a hot stove.
Spinal Cord Function and the Spinal Nerves
Francois Magendie and Charles Bell
Principle that the dorsal part of the spinal cord is sensory and the ventral part of the spinal
cord is motor
Spinal cord is capable of complex actions Reflexes
Specific movements elicited by specific stimuli the reflexes cause the muscles to go in one
direction either withdraw or extend.
Eg. Stimulation of pain receptors = Flexion (withdraw), Stimulation of fine touch = Extension
Connections Between Central and Somatic Nervous System
12 pairs, overseen by the brain
can have afferent functions, efferent functions or both
Where the nerves are connected to the face
Not too much detail in the Cranial Nerves:
Autonomic Nervous System Connections
Two Divisions; they oppose one another (when one is on the other is off):
o Arouses the body for action
When activated, the thorax system shuts down (the digestion shuts down), but
heart rate increases (more breathing).
o Fight or flight Eg. running away from a large dog o Spinal nerves in the thoracic and lumber regions are connected to the sympathetic
o Calms the body down
o Rest and digest
o Connects with parasympathetic ganglia near target organs
We need this because if one or the other don’t shut down, constant sympathetic system harms
Produces more complex movements than the spinal cord.
The more vital functions are you move down the spinal cord.
Surface fathered into folia
Coordinates and helps learn skilled movements
Very sensitive to the affects of alcohol =
Maintains general arousal Formation of the brain cells that’s responsible for sleep, wake and arousal
Makes sure that you shut down during sleep, so we don’t act out our dreams
o Problems would be caused by some sort of trauma
Pons & Medulla
Serve many functions, including waking, sleeping and locomotion
sensory input from the eyes and ears
Composed of the superior colliculi, input from the
eyes (visual), & inferior colliculi, input from the
Colliculi mediate orientation of movement to
Substania Nigra (means dark because the structure is dark)
Reward and initiation of movement
Clinical syndrome, Parkinson’s disease is associated with it; they have difficulty initiating and
Periacqueductal Gray Matter
Species-typical behaviours Eg. sexual behaviour
Modulating pain response Lecture 4: An Introduction to Human Neuropsychology
NTK is all ready to go, first activity is due Sunday, October 6 .
Interacts with the pituitary gland
Participates in nearly all aspects of motivated behavior
Involved in host activities: hunger, thirst
Biorhythms, hunger, thirst
Relays sensory information
to appropriate targets
between cortical areas
between forebrain and
Three main structures:
Basal Ganglia Subcortical
Collection of nuclei that includes the:
o Globus Pallidus
o Caudate Nucleus
Supports stimulus-response learning
Functions in sequencing movements
These form 3-d type of format
Diseases of the Basal Ganglia
o Genetic disorder
o Cell death in the basal ganglia
o Involuntary “dance like” movements LEC4 8
o Projection from the substantia nigra (small group of cells with dark presentation) to the
basal ganglia dies
o Rhythmical tremors in hands and legs
o Rigid movement and difficulty maintaining balance
Start shuffling their feet
Diseases of the Basal Ganglia
o Tourette’s Syndrome – inability to control one’s behaviour in a socially appropriate way
Eg. yelling, no social function, motor ticks
Basal ganglia diseases are disorders of controlling movement, not producing movement Limbic System (limbic lobe)
They are associated with forming memories. Amygdala, specially related to emotional
memories; overly active with PTSD.
o Cingulate Cortex (cingulate gyrus)
Neocortex (cerebral cortex)
Has expanded the most during evolution
Comprises 80% of the human brain
Six layers involved in different levels of processing *don’t have to know details*
Two cerebral hemispheres, four lobes
EXAM: pictures such as these with blanks
Fissures, Sulci, and Gyri
Fissure LEC4 12
A cleft in the cortex that is deep enough to
indent the ventricles
A shallow cleft in the cortex
A ridge in the cortex Organization of the Cortex in Relation to its Inputs and Outputs
Map of the location of the inputs and outputs to the
Primary Areas (allows conscious & collective experience)
Frontal lobe - Motor functions
Parietal lobe (behind the central sulcus) - Body senses
Temporal lobe - Auditory functions
Occipital lobe - Visual functions
Adjacent to primary areas (involved in solitary or
Receive input from the primary areas and provide
Engaged in interpreting sensory input or organizing
Tertiary Areas (Association Cortex) LEC4 16
Located between secondary areas
o Largest area is in the parietal lobe
Mediate complex activities
Cellular Organization of the Cortex
Map based on the organization, structure,
and distribution of cortical cells
o Most widely used cytoarchitectonic
o Shows that cells closer together tend
to perform the same functions
Connections Between Cortical Areas LEC4 19
Neocortical regions are connected by four types of axon projections:
Long connections between one lobe and another
o Fibers going from the white matter to parietal lobe
Relatively short connections between one part of a lobe and another
o U-shaped fibers connecting gyri
o Cerebral hemispheres communicate through the corpus callosum
Connections through the thalamus
o Small bands of fibers where these structures communicate with one another
*Don’t need to
the tracts &
fibers are, just
know what they
are and the type
of function* The Crossed Brain
Brain has contralateral organization
Each symmetrical half responds to sensory stimulation from the contralateral side or controls
musculature on the contralateral side
Crossings of sensory or motor fibers along the center of the nervous system
Largest is in the lower brainstem where white matter pathways cross over
Video: why do we study brain structure & function?
Wisconsin card-sorting task
Healthy twin shows