PSYC06 - Lecture 1 Midterm Review.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYC06 - Lecture 1 - Psychophysiology Review What is psychophysiology? It is a subfield of psychology that studies the embodiment of the mind. How mental processes are reflected in or cause bodily responses. How bodily responses affect mental processes. Embodiment The fundamental assumption is that the human mind is at least an emergent property (the way complex systems and patterns arise out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions) of the human body and possibly a system of the human body. Monism – The mind and body are not distinct from each other (they are the same). The mind is a bodily system like any other. Dualism Substance Dualism (Descartes) – The mind and body are composed of different substances. Property Dualism – The interaction of the different systems of the body create the mind. The mind is an emergent property of bodily processes. Identity Thesis – All mental states are embodied corporeally. The implications are: Understanding bodily responses can inform our understanding of mental states (and vice versa). Biological and psychological levels of experience must be integrated for psychologists to study the mind. Argues against reductionism, determinism, and pure psychologism. State-of-the-art training in psychology must include training in neurophysiology without abandoning classic psychology. The Nervous System (The communication system of the body) Peripheral Nervous System – Everything outside the brain and spinal cord. Somatic, sensory system. Function – It maintains homeostasis. They reflect more extreme forms of experience. Fundamental peripheral events: Stress, sensation, sex, life. Components – Nerves, organs, glands, tissues, fluids, neurotransmitters Motor Systems Somatic Nervous System – Composed of efferent neurons that project out of the CNS and innervates the skeletal musculature. Muscles  Striate muscles – (Skeletal) all are electrically insulated from each other. This means that action potentials spreading over a cell do not affect neighbouring cells  Smooth muscles – They are multi-unit and operate similar to striate cells. They are unitary. This means that action potentials spread to other smooth muscle cells via gap junctions (low-resistance connections) that permit the spread of electrical current between cells, e.g. hormones. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Function of ANS – It regulates activity of the visceral organs (aka visceral nervous system) Branches of ANS  Sympathetic Nervous System – Mobilizes the body in response to stress. It is typically associated with task engagement and approach motivation. Positive relationship with heart rate (sympathetic up – heart rate up, sympathetic down – heart rate down)  Parasympathetic Nervous System – It is the `rest and digest` nervous
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