MIDTERM 1- detailed chapter notes

8 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Elizabeth Page- Gould

PSYC06- MIDTERM 1 NOTES CHAPTER 1-PSYCOPHYSIOLOGY  Began in 1950  Interaction of body and mind---research where any DV (subject response) is a physiological measure and the IV (factors manipulate) is a behavioural one  DV= hear rate; IV= slide shown  Physiological responses recorded may be: changes in blood pressure, muscle potentials, saliva, change in eye size, respiration, etc.  Can also manipulate physiological variables and see behavioural changes  Psychophysiologists are now called biological psychologist  Most study response to human rather than animal, and thus are limited in data collection techniques and intensity of measurements (e.g., non-invasive)  Plato believed that rational faculties were located in the head and passion was in the spinal marrow; instincts were in spine below diaphragm---he rejected experimenting and instead placed “pure thought” above empirical observations s way to get knowledge  Erasistratos (physician during Alexander time) credited with making psychophysiological observation and associating physical behaviours (illness) with psychological being (mind)---observed what variable caused boy’s illness (physiological changes) and associated the two (mother and sweat, heart rate, etc) th  Galvani noted (18 century) that electricity originates in body---used a magnet to deal with hysteria, and noted a habituation to skin resistance  First instrument reproducing record of changing bioelectrical signal was capillary electrometer (1870s)  First instrument to record and display activity (with mercury and invasive)  Then came the skin galvanometer (reliable) and the EG in 1930 CHAPTER 2: Neurons & Muscles  Nervous system controls bodily function: muscle and organ function ad glandular activity  At least 100 billion nerve cells  Neurons found in bundles (nerves in PNS; tracts in CNS)  Neurons condition towards structure are afferent (towards CNS)  Neurons conducting away from structure are efferent (away from CNS) SENSORY SYSTEM  Sensory infoCNSredistributed inside and out of CNS  Sensory neurons don’t synapse before entering CNS MOTOR SYSTEM  Divided into subsystem: SNS and ANS  Somatic System: efferent neurons project out of CNS  Dendrites of motor neurons receive incoming messages are within central horn (gray matter) of spinal chord  Axon of each motor neuron run close to each other in spinal nerve and then separate from each other near target muscle  Motor unit: motor neuron that innervate a group of muscles  Size principle: smaller motor neurons control fewer muscles, and are fire faster than larger motor neurons ANS-> PSN and SNS  Ganglion : cell bodies or receiving neuron  In the SNS ganglion lie in a chain near the spinal chord; in PNS ganglia are in the wall of the target organ  SNS/thoracolumbar system: efferent fibers leaving postganglionic neurons innervate smooth muscles/glands in skin, eyes, viscera rule: preganglionic and post ganglionic fiber providing autonomic input to target organ---exception is medulla Ach is released at ganglia onto dendrites of postsynaptic neuron NE released by terminals of sympathetic postganglionic neuron onto target organ  PNS: composed of preganglionic neurons with ells in brain stem and spinesynapse into postganglionic neurons near target organ same NT act in PNS and SNS  PNS and SNS are typically reciprocally activated, but not always the case (e.g. decreasing PNS increases heart rate and vice versa)  Reciprocal mode of control: when one branch increases, other branch decreases (this is old view)  Now we know that one branch can increase/decrease and the other branch doesn’t change (uncoupled)—or both are simultaneously (coactivated) NERVE & MUSCLE CELLS  Both nerve cells and muscle cells are elongated (long and narrow shaped) and excitable  Resting potential: -90mv compared to outside of cell---permeability to K relative to impermeability to Na and Na-K pump (pumps 3 Na out and 2 K in)  When resting potential is reducedmembrane permeable to Nacurrents createdif strong stimulusdepolarization hits 20-40mVvery permeable to Na  After influx of Na, Na inactivates gates and then membrane is highly impermeable to N  All-or-nothing principle Muscles  Striate (skeletal) and smooth (heart shares both qualities)  Striate/skeletal: attaches to bones and responsible for support and movement of skeleton fast acting, muscles attached at both ends of bones (with exceptions, e.g., facial muscles attached to connective tissue)  arranges around bones, rising from tendons/ligaments on one side of joint and inserting into bone on the other side of joint---so muscle shortening produces tension across the joint  Cells if muscle are electrically insulated from each other---so action potential of one muscle doesn’t spread to another  Skeletal muscles composed of slender myofibrils (each fibril is made of filaments=contracting units of the cell) two types of filaments: actin and myosin When noncontracted, adjacent actin and myosin overlap but not bound to each other when contraction, bonds between two made and fibers are pulled so that bond is broken—ratcheting  Skeletal muscle contractions are initiated when neuron sends message to neuron at neurojunction that is point of content between axon terminal and muscle cell---causing release of Ach onto muscle and causing action potential  If second potential is propagated before previous contraction is complete, increase in muscle tension occurs  Frequency summation: as frequency of stimulation increases, each increase adds diminishing amount of tension until further increase causes no more tension---this point muscle cell is in state of max tension- tetanus  Smooth muscles: around hollow organs of GI tract, uterus, bladder, and arteries control pupil changes, body hair (Goosebumps) contract slowly; after 1-2 seconds 2 types of smooth muscles: multi-unit and unitary Multi-unit are similar to striate muscles, each cell is separate from neighbouring cell Unitary muscles : action potentials spread via gap junctions between cells resting potentials of GI tract cells fluctuates rhythmically; changes in potential  Cardiac Muscle: act faster than smooth muscle---has 2 regions of interconnected muscle cells---atrial and ventricle---delay between contraction of atrial and ventricles because electrical current passes between these via bundle of fibres called A/V bundle NEURON  Saltatory: impulse jump across nodes of Ranvier along axon; 40-80x faster in meylienated axons  Communication between neuron: receptor potential generated, change in electrical potential of neuron that’s proportionate to amount of stimulation received Action potential can occur when graded receptor potential from multiple areas are combined  EPSP: multiple action potential from pre synaptic required to affect post synaptic—neurotransmitter partially depolarized the postsynaptic membrane—moves voltage to depolarizing  IPSP: same but hyperpolarizing  Motor/End plate Potentials: nerve cells can release NT onto muscle/gland, influencing action Striate muscles: axon terminal supplies each cell at the motor end plate—Ach causes reduction in resting potential  Simple reflex: action of neuron are either receptive, synaptic, or motor Striate muscles have receptors that respond to stretching by causing action potentials in sensory neurons that terminate in spinal cord—there, NT is released and causes EPSP in motor neuron which project back to original muscle---see page 32 diagram for more detail  Bioelectric Potentials: recording action potentials can provide representation of the action of nerves and muscles  Psychophysiologist goals is to relate aspects of behaviour to function of large system of cells in body  When action potential or graded potential occurs at same time in great number, summed potential may be large enough to be reported from surface of skin  Cells nearer to the recording electrode contribute more  Activity recorded from scalp (EEG) is result of graded potentials from surface of brain rather than subcortical areas  Orientation of cells firing action potentials influence appearance of surface recording signal  Surface-recorded potentials are result from either action potentials or graded potentials spreading over nerves/muscles and through body via fluids  Amplitude of signal is reduced in passing through high impedance of skin Chapter 4- Psychophysiological Recordings  Recordings can be analyzed according to spontaneous, tonic, and phasic activity  Spontaneous Activity: change in change in physiological activity without knowing where it’s coming from (heart rate/skin conductance)—Important to be aware to avoid misinterpretation of data  Tonic Activity: background resting level activity—when subject isn’t making spontaneous response or discrete (phasic) response----baseline levels in context, environment, and present physiological state— imperative for research!  Law of initial values: changes relative to initial values—e.g., low rbpm, so may see higher increase during activity; if higher rbpm may not see as high increase  Phasic Activity: discrete response to specific stimulus—increase/decrease in frequency/amplitude of response 2 difficulties: determining magnitude of phasic response to stimulus and separating it from other phasic responses and spontaneous activity introducing a correcting for magnitude of phasic activity (law of initial values) CHAPTER 5- PRINCIPLES OF PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY  Duffy: inverted U related to activation of arousal and performance (three form of arousal: cortical, autonomic, and behavioural)  Problems: complexity of arousal systems: in sexual arousal prior to climax is a parasympathetic response; heart rate is both para and sympathetic response, so we can see changes in both systems following arousal  Another criticism—Stimulus-response specificity: specific stimulus contexts bring certain patterns of responding, not just a increase/decrease in a unidirectional activation way---(e.g., decrease in respiration but increase in muscle tension)  Final criticism: stimulu
More Less

Related notes for PSYC06H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.