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University of Toronto Scarborough
Michelle Hilscher

Chapter 1 - approaches to understanding emotions Charles Darwin: evolutionary approach expression of the emotions in man and animals - origins of species - living things evolved to be adapted to their environments; emotions had functions in our survival accepted theory in 1838 - God gave humans special facial muscles that allowed them to express uniquely human sentiments unknown to animals humans are descended from other species; we are animals; used photographs of naturalistic and posed expressions to make scientific points two broad questions - how are emotions expressed in humans and other animals where do our emotions come from - habits that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful; reflex-like mechanisms emotional expressions - continuity of adult human behavioural mechanisms with lower animals and infancy; vestigial parts of our bodies appendix - small functionless organ in digestive system; useful to pre-human ancestors sneering - behavioural vestige of snarling and preparing to bite; functional to ancestors but no longer used to attack crying - vestige of screaming in infancy; partially inhibited in adulthood; tears are still secreted but no longer have any protective function adult affection - taking those whom we love in our arms; based on parents hugging young infants means of communication between the mother and her infant; give vividness and energy to our spoken words William James: bodily approach when we perceive the object of fear (exciting fact) then the emotion is the perception of changes of our body as we react core of an emotion is the pattern of bodily responses; if we fancy some strong emotion and then try to abstract from our consciousness of it all the feelings of its bodily symptoms, we find we have nothing left behind our experiences of many emotions, from fear to joy, is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system, that part of the nervous system that supplies inner organs emotions give colour and warmth to experience; without effects of emotions, everything would be pale Sigmund Freud: psychoanalytic approach www.notesolution.com
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