Chp 7-14.pdf

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Gerald Cupchik

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PSYC18 – Chapter 7 • Split brain operation: sever the corpus callosum o Patients IQ, personality, language and ability to engage in meaningful interactions are not diminished • Right hemisphere responds more readily to the emotional content of stimuli, while the left is more ready to interpret experience in terms of language • Primary appraisal: unconscious, and automatic; reflexive • Secondary appraisal: potentially conscious, and thought-like Appraisal and Emotion Historical background and definitions • Chrysippus distinguished between initial movements that were automatic and and secondary movements which involved mental thought • Stress produces vigilant attention and heightened activity in the sympathetic branch of the ANS • Prolonged stress can lead to heart disease, cancer, and even cell death in the hippocampus • Lazarus said that the differences between stresses lie in the emotions • He proposed that appraisals involve judgements of how good or bad an event is • Stein’s view holds that (1) an event, usually unexpected, is perceived that changes the status of a valued goal; (2) beliefs are often challenged; this can cause bodily changes and expressions to occur; (3) plans are formed about what to do about the event to reinstate or modify the goal, and the likely results of the plans are considered Automatic appraisals of good and bad • Viewed either happy or angry faces. A suboptimal subliminal condition showed them for 4milliseconds. Subliminal had no idea whether they saw happy or angry. For suboptimally presented faces, smiling faces led participants to express greater liking for the Chinese ideographs. No such priming occurred for those who were aware of the faces Is the bad stronger than the good? • Our negative evaluations appear to be more potent than our positive ones Appraisal theories and distinct emotions • Discrete approaches to appraisals: emphasize that unique appraisals give rise to different emotions • Dimensional approaches to appraisals: focus on the many components of appraisals that relate to different emotions Discrete approaches to appraisal • According to Lazarus, primary involves appraisal of event in terms of its relevance to goals evaluate whether the event is relevant to personal goals or not, then they appraise ongoing events in terms of the extent to which the event is congruent or incongruent with the person’s goals • Goal congruent events elicit positive events, and goal incongruent events produce negative emotions • Then the individual appraises the event in terms of its relevance to more specific goals, or issues for the ego • Oatley believes that primary elicits a basic emotion and that each of the basic emotions has the function of setting the brain into a mode adapted to deal with a recurring situation not just of positive or negative but of a small number of basic emotions • Each mode is a state of readiness with a distinct phenomenological tone, but no necessary verbal meaning • Core relational theme: the essential meaning for each emotions; secondary appraisal Dimensional approaches to appraisal • Ellsworth highlighted two reasons why we need to view appraisals from another perspective (1) similarities between emotions approaches to emotions as discrete, highlight the differences between emotions in terms of their eliciting appraisals, but certain emotions elicit similar feelings (2) inability to account for transitions between emotions • Ellsworth has 8 dimensions of appraisal: attentions, anticipate effort, certainty, control-coping, legitimacy, pleasantness, perceived obstacle, responsibility • Found that the combination of control and responsibility, called ‘agency’, was the critical dimension that differentiate three negative emotions: anger, sadness, and guilt • Weiner and Graham found that some distinct emotions depend on attributions: the explanations of the causes of events that people give Critiques of appraisal research and new methods for studying appraisal • Several critiques for the retrospective, self-report study of appraisal • The evidence from studies like Ellsworth and Weiner are not causal they did not document how appraisals cause emotion • The is reason to doubt whether the kinds of conscious assessments of appraisal that Smith and Ellsworth gathered actually correspond emotion • Diary studies: people report on their daily emotional experiences in diary-like entries less subject to the biases of retrospective, self-report methods • a second new approach is to identify appraisals as they occur, and ascertain whether emotion-specific appraisals relate to other measures of emotional response Cultural variation in appraisal • Certain studies point to a surprising degree of universality in the elicitors of emotion Knowledge of emotion • People have a powerful tendency to confide their emotional experiences in others called social sharing, and it occurs even for emotions such as guilt and shame Emotion words • Emotion lexicon: an important component of emotion knowledge; vocabulary of emotion words • Applying a label to an emotional experience helps identify the intentional object of an experience: what the emotion is specifically about • Emotion words direct us to the focus of the experience shape diffuse experiences into more specific emotional experiences • Many emotions have a metaphorical content. • Metaphors: concepts that people use to describe other concepts that are typically more abstract or hard to describe • Five metaphors that speakers of English frequently use to describe emotional experience o Emotions are natural forces swept away by our emotions o Emotions are opponents we struggle, and fight off emotions o Emotions are diseases we are sick with ‘love’ o We conceptualize our emotions are fluids in a container simmer with rage o We refer to emotions as animals, or living objects • Our emotion lexicon has structure there are 3 levels to our emotion knowledge Superordinate level: knowledge is a basic distinction between positive and negative Basic level: love, joy, surprise, anger, sadness, fear Subordinate level: specific states; states that in fundamental ways share properties of the basic emotion concept above them • Cultures vary in the number of words that represent emotion • Cultures vary in which states they represent with emotion terms • Cultures vary according to whether they hypoercognize an emotion Concepts of emotion as prototypes • Prototypes: what we rely on to talk and understand • Script: people’s everyday prototype of an emotion refers to a characteristic outline of a sequence of events • Paradigm scenarios: participants offer scripts of different emotions • Prototype perspective assumes that there are no sharp boundaries between emotion categories; a prototype approach helps account for the varieties of experiences that are represented by one category of emotion Categorical properties of emotion knowledge • It appears that we do think about emotion in terms of categories with distinct boundaries between one another Experience Measurement of experience • Adjective check-lists: method to assess positive and negative moods • “agree” “disagree” to statements 5-point scale • On a scale from 1-10, circle how blank applies to you Specific emotions and core affect • Two forms at attempting to answer the fundamental elements of emotional experience: (1) experience of certain basic emotions that include happy, sad, angry, fear, is taken as irreducible (occur in free-floating form without any relation to external events); (2) experience has sometimes been derived from more primitive elements that are not themselves emotions (core affect valence and arousal) • Core affect is felt as more diffuse moods Chapter 8 – Development of Emotions in Childhood The emergence of emotions Emotions in the first year of life • Emotional development is social development • Emotional expressions are outward and visible signs of inner programs • The faces infants make to disgust are similar to those of other primates • Early smiles among infants are not usually social; social smiles do not usually emerge until one or two months month 2 a result of gentle stroking and month 3 from caregiver interaction • 3 month old response is the same as the response in an adult (smiling) • Infants smiles draw attention from adults • Also found other emotions (anger, fear, sadness) among 3 month olds Dynamic systems • Some researchers argue that infants’ negative emotions are only of undifferentiated distress but at different levels of intensity Most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete expressions • Contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscles when making negative expressions • Only difference between distress-pain and anger is that anger has eyes open • Proposal that emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems Neuropsychological programs do not come genetically specified as ready- assembled packages Such packages do occur, but they are constructed during early life from lower-level genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by interaction among the components, and by interaction of babies with other people • Idea of self-organizing system is that certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside • Componential theories of adult emotions: components occur together because they are elicited by features of the environment that occur together • Developmental view: the components that will affect emotions do become neurophysiologically linked together, but do not start out that way • Fogel (a) emotions are based on self-organizing dynamic systems; (b) these depend on continuously evolving sequences of action in particular environments, rather than on internal programs; (c) categories of emotions are constructed from gradients of timing and intensity of vocal, gestural, and other features Developmental changes in elicitation of emotion • There are marked changes in the kinds of events that elicit emotions with increasing age • Few children under 7 months showed marked expressions of fear/distress for strangers, jack-in-the-box, loud noise, mask, toy dog, etc but with increasing age up to 2yrs, children showed more fearful avoidance of visual cliff, stranger and mask. Other fears peaked at 1yr but fell with age • Increased negativity of emotional experience from grade 5 to 9 associated with reduced self-esteem • From grade 10 onward, average growth of positivity was found in adolescent emotional experience Infants’ perceptions and parents’ special expressions • Habituation has been used to consider how infants perceive emotions in other people infants look at patterns that are new to them for longer than patterns that are familiar • Infants do recognize emotionally significant expressions from parents and others from the age of a few months, but the expressions that can be recognized usually involve both visual and acoustic aspects learned first from parents’ voices • Motherese: different voice used when talking to infants • Mothers singing may be more engaging • By 7mon babies can match facial and vocal expressions • Imitation, which babies show from the first few hours of life, has emotional effects for them internal feedback of facial actions when infants mimic adult emotional expressions could evoke emotions in the child • By one year, skills have developed that allow infants to take part in complex interactions • Happy, angry, sad emerge first Attachment • Bowlby – species-characteristic pattern of attachment is central to human emotional development • Imprinting was found to occur in goslings critical period at about 2 days during which a biological mechanism is set to recognize characteristics of the mother, but objects acceptable to this mechanism are not closely specified Effects are irreversible • Attachment is not just survival, but building an inner model of interactions with another individual • Socio-emotional building-potential of attachment is innate a species-characteristic process • Principle emotion of attachment is anxiety • Separation distress occurs in the second half of the first year, reaches a peak at 15 and 18 months then declines. Rare at 3 years Cooperative action and the goal corrected partnership • Bowlby – “the goal corrected partnership” which enables cooperation between two individuals that allows them to achieve mutual goals Construction of the child’s relationship with others • Emotions show that an interaction is going well or that adjustments need to be made • When mothers demonstrate flat affect, infants showed more wary expressions, made more protests and showed positive expressions that were briefer, were much more disorganized and were more likely to enter a negative state • Mutual regulation model: emotional messages are exchanged so that each partner achieves his or her own goals in coordination with those of the other • Processes involved in regulating emotions are the same as those that generate them • Emotions are communications • Social referencing: skills of using information from caregivers to alter their own actions • Facial expressions alone can powerfully affect whether a child will cross the visual cliff • Vocal cues may be more important than visual cues in social referencing • Positive emotional expressions by adults toward objects on which they intend to act seem generally to assist infants in recognizing actions that are intended • Infants older than 10mon were more likely to look to parents face for emotional information Differentiation between self and others • Differentiating self from other is only rudimentary during the first year • Between the second year, differentiation between self and other becomes more established see the emergence of embarrassment and empathy • Children perceive distress and feel motivated to do something about it but do it in a way they themselves want to be comforted • By 3yrs, way of comforting fit the needs of others • Empathy is essential to prosocial behaviour, kindness, caring and justice • Experiencing emotions that are similar to those of someone else provides us with a stepping-stone to the other’s internal world • Compassion has been thought of as the very foundation of society • Other complex emotions are intimately tied to the child’s dawning recognition of self embarrassment • Only children who recognized themselves in the mirror were able to experience emotion • The very concept of self is social self-in-relation-to-other The language of emotions in cooperative action • Children have the ability and propensity to talk about and reflect on emotions as soon as they begin to use language • Talk about internal states at 18mon • Language about emotions enables the development of shared meanings about internal states • Parents who listen empathetically to their children’s emotions, and who coach children in meta-emotion, buffer these children from deleterious consequences of marital conflict Emotions in play and games • Symbolic play allows for social interaction; depends on imagination • Games allow for the opportunity of interpersonal engagement Children’s understanding of emotions as mental states • adult understanding of emotions makes implicit reference to people’s desires but children under four aren’t capable of such representations • children’s idea of emotion are more behavioural than mentalistic more facial expressions or behaviour rather than as internal feelings • are children got older, more of them made predictions that took into account the goals of the protagonist • theory of mind: understanding that their own mental states are distinctive and may change, and that others have mental states that can be different from their own • at 4yrs children become good at explaining people’s actions in terms of these people’s own mental states, including desires and emotions Emotional competence • eight basic skills of emotional competence in children (1) awareness of one’s emotional state, including the possibility that one is experiencing multiple emotions (2) ability to discern and understand others’ emotions using situational and expressive cues (3) ability to use the vocabulary of emotion and expression terms (4) capacity for empathetic and sympathetic involvement in others’ emotional experiences (5) ability to realize that inner emotional state need not correspond to outer expression (6) capacity for adaptive coping with distressing emotions by self-regulation (7) awareness that the structure or nature of relationships is in large part defined by how emotions are communicated within the relationship, such as by emotional immediacy or genuineness, and by emotional reciprocity (8) capacity for emotional self-efficacy: the individual views him- or herself as able to accept emotional experience • emotional intelligence: emotional abilities that can help recognize one’s own emotions, recognize the emotions of others, manage or regulate one’s emotions, and so on form the basis of socialization Inner and outer emotions • 5 involves recognizing that emotions are in part mental • Between the ages of 4 and 12 children became more competent at recognizing that they might feel ambivalence, the experience of two conflicting emotions at once • Childrens ability to mask disappointment increased with age; girls did more masking than boys Emotions and relationships, emotions and selfhood • The seventh skill of emotional communication integrates the previous 6 with awareness that emotions depend on the nature of a relationship • Emotional communication has become a major factor in marital therapy • In adolescence some create a false self to hide the true self but it lacks creativity and feelings Chapter 9 – Emotions in Social Relationships Social goals and social emotions • Freud saw life in terms of sexuality and death • Love, compassion, and gratitude are underpinnings of cooperative behaviour • Anger, aggression, and revenge have been seen as unavoidable aspects of human character • Lorenz argued that aggression is an innate drive like hunger, and that human culture is in peril Three kinds of social motivation: attachment, affiliation, and assertion • Attachment: its function is primarily that of protection and care for the immature infant. The infant and caregiver cooperate to allow the infant to thrive in an environment that contains danger • Affiliation: accompanies attachment and is typically described as warmth (affection). Contributes to parenting, and draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related • Assertion: we create hierarchies in many of the things we do. It is the motivation to rise in the social hierarchy, and to resist challenges from those who would diminish us Attachment and its separation from affiliation • Attachment system keeps the mother close • The idea of maternal sensitivity to the infant’s needs • Affiliation and warmth are fundamentally important in human development, but they involve different processes than of protection • The chimps affiliative system is at work while grooming • People express more emotions in relationships that are communal (caring, relationships) Emotions as social • People are anxious if an attachment figure is inexplicably absent • Emotions are not solely determined by appraisals of events • We commit ourselves to the relationship for which the emotion sets the frame • Emotions signal our goals, and others can then be responsive to them • Attachment, affiliation and assertion to be actively combined • Sexual love does best with a strong combination of attachment and affiliation • Effective parenting needs all three Emotions within intimate relationships Early attachment as a template for later love • In long-term love two people cooperate to accomplish together what they could not do alone. Result is the affectional bond • Proposed that adult love depends on three systems: attachment, caregiving of infants by parents, and the sexual relating of reproduction Maternal caregiving and affiliative warmth • In rats, mothers show three distinctive kinds of maternal behaviour toward their infants. (a) when infant rats suckle, the mothers assume a crouching posture over them; (b) if infants get out of the nest, they make ultrasonic squeaks and mothers retrieve them (retrieval is dependent on the nuclear accumbens); (c) mothers lick their infants, particularly on and around the ano-genital region • Baby rats who were licked more and nursed more by their mothers made a difference in DNA methylation at a gene promoter region in the hippocampus • “primary maternal preoccupation” – sustains the devotion they need for the baby to flourish • Early contact may help mothers and fathers become bonded to the infants Affiliation and sexual relating • Male provisioning hypothesis: sexual love in humans is the result of the joining of the affiliative-warmth system to the reproductive one • Pair-bonding: movement from promiscuity to long-lasting sexual relationships between specific males and females Principles of sexual love • Love in marriage was most closely identified with happiness • Differentiation between sexual desire and romantic love • The people participants say they love only partially overlap with those who they say they feel sexual desire • Only romantic or sexual love is associated with the release of oxytocin, which itself promotes devotion and monogamy Anger and contempt in marriage • “the four horsemen of the apocalypse” Criticism: those who were more critical had less satisfying marriages Defensiveness Stonewalling (resisting dealing with problems): when romantic partners are unable to talk freely about their difficulties without being defensive, they are in trouble Contempt for the partner: denial of the • All social emotions have an element of commitment • Fuck anger • Resolution is the readjustment of the relationship in response to anger Friendship and gratitude • From an evolutionary perspective, friendships present something of a conundrum: they require cooperation with non-kin • Trivers proposed that cooperative alliances like friendships have emerged in human evolution, and are successful in our more immediate lives • Communicative gene hypothesis: although genes are inherently selfish, they survive and continue from generation to generation only in the context of other genes • Contend that gratitude is a glue of cooperative social living amongst non-kin; it is a moral emotion • Gratitude leads people to be more likely to reciprocate acts of generosity • Expression of gratitude acts as a reward; it reinforces affectionate, cooperative behaviour Emotions of assertion within groups • Most characteristic emotion of assertion is anger and any aversive event – pain, hunger, fatigue, humiliation, anxiety, insults – will elicit aggression when it produces anger • Berkowitz has shown that people who experience brought about by holding their arms horizontally for six minutes were more critical of another person • Also found that female participants were more likely to punish and less likely to reward another participant when their arms were immersed in painfully cold water than when their arms were in water at room temperature • Hierarchies are negotiated by threatening displays of anger and complementary displays of deference, or by actual fights • Aggression and reconciliation • We should see the typical aggressive sequence as (1) a phase of aggression, (2) a readjustment or acknowledgement of dominance position or resolution of some other issue, then (3) a reconciliation on the basis of the readjustment • Emotions like anger establish positions of power while emotions like embarrassment or shame are associated with low status positions in social hierarchies • High power people respond to difficulties with anger Cross-cultural variations in the management of anger • Some societies view anger as destructive and to be avoided • The role of anger in aggressive societies is that it fires people to perform deeds of which they would be otherwise incapable • In our species, fighting fuelled by anger functions at least in part as the lever of individual power to control resources • Vengeance is a frequent accompaniment of anger although it does nothing to right the wrong, and is often harmful to the individual who wreaks revenge • Vengefulness is highly social it seeks to restore a balance of power, and the threat of it can deter Cultural codes • A pattern that is complementary to anger is fear • Social fear: a response in deference to social anger • All societies are based on one of three ethical codes: Autonomy and individual rights: its emotion is anger at moral trespass, resulting in social readjustment as individuals establish their rights against any who infringe them. Social enactment is the law suit The morality of the dominance hierarchy where individuals acquire and defend position and resources Ethics of divinity: the self as a spiritual entity that has to be protected against contamination, from food and other pollutants. The emotion at the centre is disgust ethics of duty contempt and honour Gender relations • Women are thought of as more emotionally expressive, and more emotionally sensitive a stereotype that represents a folk theory and represents a set of normative standards of appropriateness that affect how people do indeed behave • Stereotypically female emotions include happiness and fear, the emotions of affiliation and submissiveness • Stereotypically male emotions include anger and other emotions of dominance • If you have an emotion to confide, you would probably be better doing it with a woman regardless of your own gender women are more empathic • Gender and power affect intimate relationships • Defensiveness and stonewalling are toxic to relationships (more so by men), while contempt by women is toxic • Men relate to each other primarily by locating themselves in dominance hierarchies, even when overt aggression does not occur • When hunting is important men tend to occupy a higher rank associated with providing the group with meat • The Chambri have women doing the fishing Emotions between groups Intergroup conflict • Chimpanzees in Gombe separated and became and out-group • The emotional preference for “us”, and hostility to “them”, is indeed a candidate for a biologically inherited human universal • In the book Blink it discusses how police officers are more liable to behave inappropriately when in groups than when alone, and also when emotionally over- aroused by occasions such as high-speed car chases • Cooperating on joint projects solution to summer camp • Another solution is forgiveness, which has its root in the reconciliation processes nonhuman primates so routinely engage in to maintain peaceful communities • Forgiveness involves the release of negative feelings and increased compassion and empathy toward the perpetrator of injustice Violence between societies • Violent events seem to go beyond anger to an appalling capacity of people in our species, usually acting in group, to treat people of other cultures as nonhuman Disgust and contempt • Disgust can be felt toward people • Disgust, though originally derived from taste, often extends from protecting the body from disease, to protection against contamination of all kinds, to anything that might harm our soul, or the social order • In some ways contempt is similar to disgust, but they are separate • Contempt is the emotion of rejection of members of out-groups most often called prejudice • When different societies meet, a typical repertoire of emotions is elicited: first is an anxious distrust, perhaps hostility, perhaps a tentative friendliness • The warrior mentality is part of the human repertoire, but to be expressed it needs to be culturally cultivated, and cultures change • Empathy for other people and cultures can provide a foundation for an intercultural morality Chapter 11 – Individual Differences and Personality Emotion Regulation • Physical aggression peaks between 24 and 42 months • People differ in both their success at managing emotions in ways appropriate to the social situation and the means they use to accomplish this management and regulation • Children’s ability to use language influences how they regulate their emotions • Mobility has an important effect: when infants begin to move and can start to satisfy some of their own desires, their need for an intense signalling system lessens • One view is that regulation starts with modulation of expression of emotion initially fostered by the caregiver, and gradually becomes internalized by the child • Stages of emotion regulation while failure at one stage has implications for subsequent stages In the first months the task is to achieve stability in functioning With neurological development and repeated interactions, the child learns during the first year to inhibit certain expressions and soothe the self At the end of the first year, attachment to close, emotionally available caregiver becomes the central issue Development of the self system, and of self-regulation – child develops a notion of an autonomous self • Emotion regulation: some refer to it as individual differences in intensity, frequency, and duration of emotions • Another meaning concerns the balance of emotions displayed by the individual • Also used to refer to the processes involved in modifying emotional reactions: the coping processes that lessen or augment the intensity of experience • Regulatory processes affect every stage of the emotion process: appraisal of the event, evaluation of the context, the suppression of urges, as well as the selection and control of various kinds of expression and action • Thompson’s definition of emotion regulation “the extrinsic and intrinsic processes responsible for monitoring, evaluating, and modifying emotional reactions, especially their intensive and temporal features, to accomplish one’s goals” • Emotion regulation is essential to socialization • Children who were able to regulate their emotions experience warm parental control • Suppression reduces rapport: emotional responsiveness is important for communication • Successful regulation is not accomplished by suppression • Shifting attention and reappraisal are the keys, and they are often accomplished by concentrating on what one is doing • As people get older their motivation increases to derive emotional meaning from life, rather than to expand emotional horizons • People tend to increase their skills of emotion regulation as they age Attachment The “Strange Situation (SS)” and styles of attachment • Bowlby saw attachment as an evolutionarily derived aspect of the parent-child relationship that is activated when the child experiences threat • Using the strange situation, Mary ainsworth identified three distinct attachment styles • “securely attached” infants are distressed when caregivers leave, but when their caregivers return they seek them, and can be comforted o Show both positive and negative emotions, as well as neutrality o Argued because their parents have been responsive to all their emotional expressions • “ambivalently attached” want to be near caregivers upon their return, but at the same time will not be comforted, and show a great deal of angry and resistant behaviour o Show more negative emotions such as anger o Infants may have been responded to only inconsistently, so that they have developed a strategy of noisy expression of negative emotions in an effort to get parents to respond to them o Mothers were most responsive to negative affect and were least responsive to positive affect • “avoidantly attached” make no effort to interact when their caregiver returns o Show fewer emotions of all kinds o Thought to have experienced repeated rejections and found that mothers were the least responsive to their babies’ negative emotions o Infants showed fewer facial and vocal displays of emotion during the strange situation that secure, similar levels of heart rate during the test, but higher cortisol levels after it • Disoriented/disorganized contradictory behaviour Internal working models of attachment • Early emotional interactions with caregivers lead children to build and internal working model of relationships a mental model, or set of beliefs, of what to expect in an intimate relationship o It is preverbal o Start in early relationships with caregivers, somewhat resistant to change and the
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