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1 PSYC18 PSYCH OF EMOTION LECTURES 711 thLecture 7 March 8 2012 Slide 3 everything is about planning concern action tendencies def on final Pribram memory based theory of emotioncognitive portionfocusing on cognition 1He offers a memory based theory of emotion rather than a viscerally or arousal based theory2 He takes into account past experience and the present emotionevoking situation 3Emotion is related to the plans or projects rather than the level of activation4Organized stability is the baseline from which disturbances or perturbations occurs Input that is incongruent with the baseline produces a disturbancevery adaptation oriented guysproblem solvingemotion is a signal something is not going on right in reference to fulfilling your goals 5 An important part of the baseline is continuing activity of the viscera regulated through the autonomic nervous system neurophysiologist 6 A mismatch between expectations and actual bodily changes in heart rate sweating butterflies and so on is sensed as a discrepancyeverythings fine what doesnt fit tune in 7 Emotion is related to ongoing organizationof plans programs or dispositionsEmotion is a perturbation an interruption disruption of normal ongoing activityPribram extends the homeostatic model from intraorganic events to the total organismenvironment relationthe point is heres a guy whos very important in psycho physhow does psycho phys fit with cognitive partwere trying to fulfill goals when things dont fit our body tells ussignal that we have to dealwith the situationphysiology meets cognitionour expectations are based on our backgroundsneeds 8 Emotion is an emotion a process that takes the organism temporarily out of motion and effects control through the regulation of sensory inputstakes us out of motionuse body as a signa for body 9 Central control through the regulation of peripheral inputs takes two forms A Inhibition of peripheral inputs while organism decides what to doshut things out inhibit peripheral inputs and attend to critical pointsvery serious issue that hes addressed B Facilitation of attention to critical inputs from the environmentthe need for attention in the context of coping responses and the need for blocking outemotional distracters the value of emotion is that it wakes you up that something is wrong and focus on inpuot to attend carefully to situational demandsOuatlay and Johnson LairdThey follow in the tradition of Mandler and Pribram by focusing on the interruption of goalsEmotions signal important events in the environment and prepare one cognitively and physiologically for activities that may involve changing ones plans or goals and altering ongoing behaviour 2 PSYC18 PSYCH OF EMOTION LECTURES 711 think that every moment of life we have goals and concerns and emotion has a signal value about something thats going on that interrupting goals and concernsEMOTIONS FUNCTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ACTIONEmotions emerge at significant junctures in plans youre moving along and you have a choice to do A or Beach of these choice points emotions emergeEmotion signals do this quickly and without the aid of consciousness automatic process just like ArnoldEmotions involve a readiness to respond in particular ways to particular stimuli FreijdaEmotions are triggered by stimuli that are relevant to goals a Anxiety when selfpreservation is threatened b Anger when plan being carried out is frustrated c Happiness when a goal is achievedall these emotions are redefined in terms of facilitation inhibition or achievement of goalsComplex emotions are not combinations of simpler basic emotions They have added propositional evaluation which is social and includes reference to models of the selflanguage oriented rulesEmotion involves intrasystemic within the system communication between modules in the system the brain is organized in modules and were dealing with communication within modules that help you strategize coping responses that are chains of activity and each module responsible for something system within the mind have different zones of organization that communicate with each otherEmotion involves intersystemic communication in the sense that many of our more complex emotions communicate information about mutual plans and goals of interdependent social actors how do we organize stuff with someone else organization of adaptive behaviour that can happen within the individual or among pairsgroups of peopleSo emotions are mental states with coherent psychological functions They haveAn action readiness component like Frijda based on evaluation of something happening that affects the persons concerns The evaluation need not be conscious is it good or bad for meA phenomenological tone or felt quality science of experience experiential or felt quality Emotions are accompanied by A A conscious preoccupationsomething youre thinking about eg anger and thoughts of revenge B Bodily disturbance C Expressive gesture in the faceOatley imagines a hierarchy of modules in the brain that execute functions and help us to realize our goals This is a computational model So emotions help us arrange goal priorities We are consciously aware of only the top level of the cognitive system that contains a model of the systems goals 3 PSYC18 PSYCH OF EMOTION LECTURES 711 hierarchy at the top youve got the mapplan all the modules below are governed by the big plan and you have to be able to access that big plan everything is chain of command 1960s info theory of emotion were only consciously aware of the top and everything else happens automaticallyThe semantic Field of Emotion 0Generic emotions emotions and feelings 1Basic emotions happiness and elation They have intensityduration 2Emotional relations love and hate 3Caused emotions gladness and horrorsomething out there did it to you 4Causativesirritate and reassuresomething that produces the emotion 5Emotional goals desire and avarice 6Complex emotions embarrassment and pityalways imply the self we can go from generic baseline levels of emotions physical reactions right away how you feel about yourself shame etc like embarrassmentRosemans Cognitive Structural Theory For 14 emotions 5 dimensions or ways of appraising events everything is about appraising Like the VALUE X EXPECTANCY model discussed earlier drive X habit theory early beahviourismD X H X expectancy X value early cog psych 1 Situational State Are events encountered in a particular situation consistent or inconsistent with ones motivesis my situation consistent with my motives Consistency leads to positive emotions inconsistency to negative emotions like Arnolds harmfulbeneficial distinction 2 Probability How certain are you about a certain outcome occurringUncertainty fear or hope Certaintyjoy sadness sadness or disgust expectancy 3 Agency Who is responsible for events in a situation Caused by selfGUILT Caused by otherANGER Circumstances beyond ones controlSADNESS 4 Motivational State Do events one encounters involve obtaining a reward or avoiding a punishment Appetitive vs Aversive Motivation Obtain rewardJOY Avoid punishmentRELIEF 5 Power Perceive oneself as weak or strong in a situationWeakFEAR StrongFRUSTRATIONANGERThe Social Constructionist Perspective Jim Averill cognitive humanistic side
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