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PSYC62 - Final Exam Drug Summaries Charts.docx

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Suzanne Erb

Psychostimulants Sedative Hypnotics and Anxiolytics OpiatesThe major stimulantsSHs and anxiolytics share a similarderived from the extracts of the opium poppy seed Definition A The amphetamines spectrum of effectsmain active ingredient in opium is morphine Structure 1 Dextroamphetamine isomer ofAlthough anxiolytics such as minorthere are a variety of natural and synthetic opiates eg Types amphetamine molecule ADHD tranquilizers are often included as morphine codeine heroin methadone oxycodone depression available under sedative hypnotics there are manySchedule II drug prescription obesity narcolepsy drugs used to treat anxiety disorderscontrolled substances that would not be considered in this 2 Methylphenidate ritalin ADHD enhance attention by classification eg generalized boosting activity of system anxiety disorders 3 Methamphetamine most potent3 major groups highly abused 1 Benzodiazepines most 4 Methcathinone recreational use commonly abused drugs only no approved medical use 2 Barbiturates available on B Cocaine market involved w glutamateinhibition and GABA facilitationThe minor stimulants 3 Alcohol most highly abused A Nicotine recreational drug B Caffeine Psychostimulants are drugs that increase pain relief Function alertness heighten arousal and causemedicinal uses cough suppressionslow activity of behavioural excitementwidespread cough centre in brain and medulla synthetic opiates in activational effects cough syrup other than codeine analgesiapain reliefblock the action of pain from being transmitted to brain not all pain sensation are blocked acting tooDA functionheroin addictionmethadone is the 1 antagonist used to manage opiate dependence Inlow doses have a sedative orrapid potent Characteristics calming effecthigh abuse liabilityAtdoses have a hypnotic or sleepinducing effectsmoking or consuming opiumancient practice Historicaltreatment of choice during wartime injury recovery due Perspective its rapid painrelieving properties of injectable morphinedecline in 1980s thenin availability and abuse since 1990heroin responsible for more than 1000 deaths a yearStimulant drugs like amphetamine and Barbituates activate barbiturateinfluence the activity of monoamine systems Pharmacology cocaine affect the brain primarily through binding sitesthey act asinhibits NE directly actions on monoamine systemsdopamine pharmacological antagonists toactivates DA and 5HT indirectlyopiate binds to DA norepinephrine NE and serotonin glutamate receptor to inhibit GABA to inhibit it and allow release of DA 5HT glutamate transmission they actmimic activity in the brains endorphin system byStimulants differ with respect to their primarily on GABA system to stimulating opiate receptors durations of actionEg Amphetamines facilitate GABA transmissionopioid receptors mu delta kappa subtypes in VTA much longeracting than cocaineand NAcc analgesia pathways and locus coeruleus amphet Effects dissipate 1820 minendogenous opioid peptides enkephalins endorphins cocaine effects persist many hours after dynorphinsStimulant drugs may be administered and1 Ingestion readily absorbed in GI tract Modes of absorbed in a number of different ways and 2 SniffedSnorted effect within 1015min Intake their onsets of action vary accordingly3 Smokedorally injected smoked or snorted 4 Injection higher abuse potential heroin addict injects up to 4 timesday binge pattern intravenous felt within seconds intramuscular slower effect subcutaneousAt low to moderate doses psychomotor Psychological stimulants Effectsproduce motor stimulationreduce fatigue resistance to sleep insomnia vigilance and alertness induce a heightened mood or anxietymotivation and emotion profound effects on cognitiontolerance can takedoses and nothing happens to Longterm them following several months of use can take 4050X Effects of drug comparing to what kills a normal nonaddicted personchronic opiate use induces physical and psychological dependencedistinct neural substrates of physical and psychological dependence assoc w behavioural effectsrushof skin and in extremities Acute Effectseuphoriasedationanalgesiarespiratory depression cardiac action can be slowed down to the point of deathconfusion and mental cloudingnauseavomitingboth natural and synthetic opiates produce pleasurable experienceseuphoria Shorttermsedation Effects
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