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PSYC62 Midterm notes (Ch.1-4)

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Zachariah Campbell

Thursday January 30 2014Chapter 1 Introduction to PsychopharmacologyPsychopharmacology Study of how drugs affect mood perception thinking or behaviourEncompasses two elds of psychology and pharmacologyAttempt to relate actions and effects of drugs to issues in psychologyPsychoactive drug Drugs that affect mood perception thinking or behaviour by acting in nervous systemBehaviour pharmacology Study of how drugs affect behaviour subeld of behaviour analysisDrug serves as behaviourally controlling stimuliNeuropsychopharmacology Study of how drugs affect nervous system and how NS changes behaviourEmphasis on nervous system actions of drugPharmacotherapeutics psychoactive treatment for disordersDrug Administered substance that alters physiological functioningAdminstered Either takes or given the substance through injection or ingestion or inhalationSubstance must exhibit sufcient efcacy to change physiological processesFood may also viewed as drug according to this denition food also will affect physiological functionsPsychoactive drugs Described by Manner of Use Psychoactive drugs have two types of usesRecreational use and Instrumental useInstrumental use Person uses a drug with specic purposeeg take antidepressant drug to reduce depression consume caffeine to wake up in the morningTherapeutic drug Drug used to treat physical or mental disorderRecreational use Using drug to experience its effectseg drinking alcohol to experience its intoxicating effectMisuse Applies to drugs that intended for instrumental purpose but used recreationallyeg chough syrups misused recreationally to have mindaltering effectsDrug abuse refer to drug use that causes harm to users or the othersIncludes dependence as features of drug abuse and have urge or need to continue using substanceGeneric names Trade names and Street names for drugTylenol to treat headaches also known as acetaminophen in generic nameTylenol is the trade name for acetaminophenTrade name Drug name developed for marketing the drug design to be memorableemotion provokingGeneric name Name which show how drugs organizationally t with other drugsInclude drugs chemical structure and similarity to other drugsScientic paper and reports usually refer to drugs generic nameStreet name Drug name usually used to refer to recreational drugseg ADAN refers to drug MDMA and ecstasy1Thursday January 30 2014Drugs effects Determined by dose Drug effects are depended on dose of drug generally higher dose of drug has greater effectsDose ratio of the amount of drug per organisms body weight eg 10gkg of body weightDose effect curve Depicts the level of drug effect by doseTo determine the effects of drug by evaluating range of different dosesED Value Represents dose at which 50 of an effect was observed50Provide a means to compare potency of a drug low the ED valuehigher potencyPotency Amount of drug used to produce certain level of effectHighly potent drug means low doses will produce signicant drug effectsDrug development Multistep process of developing effective safe and protable therapeutic drugNeed to determine drugs lethal dose through doseeffect curvesLD Value or known as TD value or lethal dose allow for determination of therapeutic index5050Therapeutic index ration of drugs lethal dose effect value relative to therapeutic doseeffect valueBy dividing ED valueLD value but not ideal for identify safe drugs5050Drug developer often uses LD1 which the lethal dose caused only 1 of subject dies to divide 99 of ED valueHave larger therapeutic index describes very separate lethal and therapeutic dose effect curvesPharmacology Pharmacodynamics Pharmacokinetics and PharmacogenetiTwo major areas in pharmacology Pharmacodynamic and PharmacokineticsPharmacodynamic Study of how drugs affect biological action study of mechanism of action for drugeg how drugs affect the reward pathway to produce pleasurable effectPharmacokinetic Study of how drugs pass through body consider different way to administer the drugeg how long the drug stays in the body how well does it enter the brainPharmacogenetic Affect both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokineticStudy of how genetic difference inuence drugs pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic effectsProvide basis for differences in drug response between individualsSingle psychoactive therapeutic drug does not work for everyone due to genetic differenceGenetically related differences in drug responsiveness affect drugs actions in nervous systemeg fast metabolizers will quickly breakdown the drugs hence have weaker drug effectsPsychoactive drugs Objective and Subjective effectsObjective effect pharmacological effects that can be directly observed by othersResearcher can independently measure drugs effect eg heart rate by taking his pulseSubjective effect pharmacological effects that cannot be directly observed by otherseg personal feelings about the drug effects vary from person to personExplain purpose of recreational and addictive drug use and therapeutic value of antidepressant etcStudy designs and Assessment of Psychoactive drugs2Thursday January 30 2014Dependent variable Study variable measured by researcherUsually consists of behavioural measureIndependent variable Study conditions or treatments that may affect dependent variableHave two types of research studies Correlational studies and Experimental studiesCorrelational study Study which investigator does not alter the independent variableDo not indicate causation of variable to another variableExperimental study Alters independent variable to determine if changes occur to dependent variableIndicate independent variable may cause or not cause changes to dependent variableUse random sampling to assign participants to study groupPlacebo Substance identical in appearance to drug but physiologically inert also refer as vehicleTreatment arm Number of treatments and doses provided to patients described in clinical studyClinical drug studies use other terminology to describe an experimentArm Treatment condition in clinical drug study designTwoarm design Two patient experimental groupsusually one group have drug another have placeboThreearm design Highdose drug group lowdose group control groupClinical study report Detailed summaries of clinical studys design and resultSingleblind procedure when researchers do not inform study participants which treatment they received To eliminate potential biases by participantsDoubleblind procedure when neither participants nor investigator know treatment assignments during studyPrevent both biases from participants and biased judgements by study investigatorsOpenlabel studies assignment of study treatment without using blinded proceduresApply to situation where disguising medication may not be ethical or practicalExperimental validity Addressing quality and impact of experimentExperimental validity address the logical design of effective quality experiment studiesconsists of internal validity external validity face validity construct validity predictive validityInternal validity refers to control of variables with potential to inuence changes in dependent variableTo conrm only independent variable cause changes to dependent variableAdequacy of controlling variables that may inuence dependent variableConfound variable Variables other than independent variable that cause changes to dependent variableExternal validity refers to how well experimental ndings generalize beyond experimental conditionsAbility to extend ndings beyond experimental conditionsPresents limitation for animal research ndings and their extension to effects to humaneg Thalidomide not harmful to mices fetus but harmful to humans fetusMetabolically broken down into teratogens in human substance harmful to fetusAnimal research Procedures that use animal subjects in scientic researchFace validity models appear to be similar to disorder3
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