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All Final Exam Keyterms Defined (What you need to know)

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Henry Shiu

Key Terms for the Lecture on Hinduismsanatana dharmaEternal religionEternal truth to practice Hinduism means to practice duty they are devoted to Gods such as Siva or Visnu Horizontal TilakSiva DevoteeVertical TilakVisnu Devoteetilak or tilakaForehead marking indicating devotion to GodBharataIndigenous term for IndiaSamsaracycle of life and deathIndus Valley CivilizationPeaceful civilization found by archaeologists in 1850s which many Hindus did not consider it as part of Hinduism They used a language called cryptic They had a different belief for cleandirty in different contexts Hindu temple nowadays are equipped with tapsbaths in order to follow their rituals They were concerned with procreation and was very organized as a city They ended when Aryans came inAryansThey were not as organized as the Indus Valley Civilization however they brought in Gods traditions languages and rituals The Aryan language eventually developed into SanskritSanskritOfficial language of Hindu religion believed to be origin of languages believed through syntax one can get into nature Everything we know about them came from collections of writing called VedaVedasA sacred collection of writings that are not stories but literary manual only disclosed to priests a book of prayers hymns myths spells and philosophical ideas Veda means wisdom Vid means to see in Sanskrit whereas in English Video is to see RigVedaOldest 30000 years old containing over 1000 hymns RigPraiseYajurVedaInstructions of sacrifices SamaVedaConsisted of Melodies to be sung at right pitch to be effectiveAtharvaVedaHealing RitualsSamhitasHymnsBrahmanasInstruction on the performance for Rituals AranyakasComposition of forestUpanishadsLatest philosophical discussion about nature of universe whether life is eternal karma reincarnation etc PuranasOld tales about deitiesPranaInternal aircurrent of the bodybasic animating principle AtmanSoul selfexisting to human body inseparable from bodyBrahmanMeans single source of it all also explains how sacrifices workedRitaMeans harmony and orderPurusha or PurusaPrimeval giant sacrificed by the gods to create the worldDevaGod eg Indraof over 1000 Hymns dedicated to him God of War The Laws of ManuAttributed to Sage Manu who laid down rules also given class Varna their duties KarmaActionsevery action has its circumstancesGood actiongood reward Good karma means performing rituals and fulfilling dutiesVarnaClassJatisHereditary occupational groups 1 Priests brahmans 2 Rulerswarrior kstriyas 3 Commoners vaisyasSudraHunters fishermans whoever dealt with dead bodiesDharmasastraAssume ones birth location indicates their karmaAsramas4 stages of life to increase dignity arthaworldly successachieving success in societykamasensory pleasureacceptable goal for mendharmaDutyprescribed by ones castemoksaLiberationTo attain this one must practice yogayogato join liberate to unite 8 stages of meditational principlessamskarasLife cycle rites
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