Terms For Final Exam
Bar Mitzvah • Son of the commandments, the title given to a 13 year old boy when he is initiated into
adult ritual responsibilities; some branches celebrate Bat Mitzvah for girls
Minyan • The quorum of ten required for a prayer service in the synagogue
Seder • Orderterm used for the ritual Passover supper celebrated in the home; the 6 division of
the Mishnah are also called orders or seders
Gemarah • Body of Aramaic commentary attached to the Hebrew text of the Mishnah, which
together makes up the Talmud (Jerusalem Talmud & Babylonian Talmud
Septuagint • Greek translation of the Hebrew scriptures, made in Alexandria in Hellenistic times
Tefillin • Small black leather boxes, also termed phylacteries, containing words of scripture, tied
to the forehead and forearm by leather thongs.
Eucharist • Ritual reenactment of Jesus’ sacrifice of himself, patterned after his sharing of bread
and wine as his body and blood at the final Passover meal with his disciples
• Orthodox Christians term it liturgy
• Catholics (Mass)
• Protestants (Lord’s supper or holy communion)
Fundamentalist • A twentieth century reaction to modernity, originally among Protestants who
maintained the infallibility of scripture and doctrine.
Charismatic • Characterized by spiritual gifts such as glossolalia
Glossolalia • Speaking in tongues. A distinguishing feature of charismatic movements
Nicene Creed • A statement of the content of the Christian faith. It is a formal statement of doctrinal
belief often recited in agreement by congregations.
• Named for the council of Nicea in 325, achieved present form in 381
• ACalvinist-inspired movement (1558-1660) that sought to ‘purify’the Church of
England of Catholic influences.
Transubstantiation • The Catholic doctrine that in the Eucharistic service, the bread and wine are
miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
Original Sin • The sinfulness, or tendency towards sin, supposedly innate in human beings as a
consequence of Adam’s fall
Term Lecture Textbook
Dhikr • ‘Remembering ‘ God’s name • It is the idea of
• Chanted in Sufi devotional exercises, sometimes while remembering god
devotees dance in a circle everywhere
• With the Sufis we are not
paying attention to the
divine and the fact that god
is responsible for
Hadith • Body of texts reporting Muhammad’s words and • relies on earlier biographical
example, taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct material and used it with a grain
and doctrine of salt • a hadith is an individual unit of the literature
Hajj • The annual pilgrimage to Mecca It is good to do but if you