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Sheldon Ungar

SOCA01 MIDTERM REVIEW NOTES(CH1-7)(TEXTBOOK & IN CLASS NOTES) (S. UNGAR) CHAPTER 1: Social Constructionism and Queer Theory SOCIAL CONSTRUCTIONISM- is a variant of symbolic interactionism that has become popular in recent years. -it argues that when people interact, they typically assume things are naturally or innately what they seem to be, but unreality, apparently natural or innate features of life are sustained by SOCIAL processes that vary historically and culturally ex; people may assume differences in a man and a women's behavior, where as social constructionist would say there are many presumable differences between a man and a women it just depends on the way power is distributed between them and the degree to which certain ideas about women and men are shared. Since power distributions and ideas about gender vary over time and place. -Social constructionists are able to show how changing social conditions produce changes in the way people act out their gender identity, they conclude gender is more a performance shaped by social conditions. QUEER THEORY- denies the very existence of stable identities. -when we apply labels such as "male" "female" "lesbian" to ourselves or others we are adopting official or at least socially accepted labels that fail to capture the fluidity and variability of peoples actual identities and performances. -argues that people's sexual identities and performances are so variable that conventional labels such as male female gay fail to capture the sexual instability that characterizes the lives of many people FEMINIST THEORY HARRIET MARTINEAU (1802-76)- first female sociologist and one of the first feminists -she lived on her own translated Comtes work into english and was a journalist JANE ADDAMS (1860-1935)- co founder of Hull House, a shelter for the destitute in Chicago's slums, and she spent a lifetime fighting for social reform -won the noble peace prize in 1931 MODERN FEMINISM- feminists thinking had little impact on anything until 1960's, when the rise of modern women's movement drew attention too the many inequalities between men and women. FEMINIST THEORY-claims that patriarchy is at least as important as class inequality in determining a person's opportunities in life. It holds that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention. It examines the operation of patriarchy in both micro and macro settings. And it contends that’s existing patterns if gender inequality can and should be changed for the benefit of all members of society. The feminist theory…. •focuses on the various aspects of patriarchy, the system of male domination in society. •holds that male domination and female subordination are determined not by biological necessity but by structures of power and social convention, women are subordinate to men because men enjoy more legal, economic,political and cultural rights •examines the operation of patriarchy in both microlevel and macro level settings •contends that existing patterns of gender inequality can and should be changed for the benefit of all members of society. i.e.; job pays, politics, education etc POSTINDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- refers to the technology- driven shift from manufacturing to service industries and the consequences of that shift for virtually all human activities -ie; the shift from employment in factories to employment in offices and the consequences of these actions for humans GLOBALIZATION- is the process by which formerly separate economies, states, and cultures become tied together and people become increasingly aware of their growing interdependence. -causes people to depend on people from other countries CHAPTER 2: How sociologists do Research LEVELS OF EXPERIENCE CONCRETE EXPERIENCE-> obtained by seeing,touching,tasting,smelling or hearing. these are PERCEPTS->the smallest bits of concrete experience which form PATTERNS->collections of related percepts. when aggregated. -if life were experienced exclusively at the concrete level, it would be full of sensations but devoid of meaning ABSTRACT LEVEL-> the imaginary world of the mind. ->occurs in your mind ->world of imagination and fantasy ->this level is composed of CONCEPTS-> abstract terms used to organize concrete experience when they are linked together,they form propositions. ->concepts are abstract terms for organizing sense experience. ->your mind relates concepts to one another and in doing so forms PROPOSITIONS->ideas that result from finding the relationship between concepts ->they are abstract statements that express relationship between two or more concepts. ex; list of things and you can connect them as oppose to just thinking each individual object 10 TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC THINKING •Knowledge based on TRADITION- chicken noodle soup cures colds •Knowledge based on AUTHORITY-We often think because the newspaper or magazines say something its true •Knowledge based on CASUAL OBSERVATION-seeing something with your own eyes, not always correct •Knowledge based on OVERGENERALIZATION- some people believe in certain thing bc they heard it and they assume where as scientists would sample(=the part of the pop. of research interest that is selected for analysis) of entire populations (=the entire group about which the researcher wants to generalize) to avoid the overgeneralization. •Knowledge based on SELECTIVE OBSERVATION- the things you just ignore to believe just bc •Knowledge based on QUALIFICATION or" EXCEPTIONS TO THE RULE"-ex; the disabled are poor bc can't work •Knowledge based on ILLOGICAL REASONING-the belief that reoccurrence of events cause certain outcomes when it could just be by chance. Knowledge based on EGO-DEFENCE-"i just can't be wrong" idea •Knowledge based on PREMATURE CLOSURE OF INQUIRY-the thinking that all the relevant evidence has been gathered on a particular subject. ex; "the matter is settled once and for all", scientists name theories as only temporary •Knowledge based on MYSTIFICATION- "supernatural forces" usually we assume when we can't find a rational explanation for something. RESEARCH PRELIMINARIES THE RESEARCH CYCLE •Sociological research seeks to overcome the kind of unscientific thinking described above(^) •It is a cyclical process that involves these six steps: 1.FORMULATE A RESEARCH QUESTION->must be stated so it can be answered by systematically collecting and analyzing sociological data. 2.REVIEW THE EXISTING RESEARCH LITERATURE-> researchers should look at other sociologists work bc reading the relevant sociological literature stimulates researchers' sociological imagination, which allows them to refine their initial questions, and prevents duplication of effort 3.SELECTING A RESEARCH METHOD-> different methods of data collection are better suited of certain research 4.COLLECTING DATA BY OBSERVING SUBJECTS->interviewing them, reading documents produced by or about them, and so on. 5.ANALYZING DATA->this is where you learn what others have ever known before. it is where data confirms some of your expectations and confounds others , this is when you reconsider. 6.PUBLISH THE RESULTS->this allows other sociologists to scrutinize and criticize the research. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS •scientists must consider their subjects and that they insure no harm, they have their rights to safety. •The right to be studied on or not •whether the subject wants they attitudes and behaviours to be published •confidentiality •they must be allowed to judge where their information is being published MEASURING VARIABLES sociologists translate abstract propositions into testable forms through OPERATIONALIZATION ->It is the process of translating concepts into variables and propositions into hypothesis VARIABLES=is a measure of a concept that has more than one value or score. HYPOTHESIS->is a testable form of a proposition -> a hypothesis is a testable form of proposition bc you can imagine being able to experience(measure) different levels of variables in concrete form ->An educated guess- therefore an informed idea THE MAIN METHODS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIMENTS North American teenagers in the 1960's and subsequent decades were more likely than pre 1960's teens to commit violence acts EXPERIMENT-> a carefully controlled artificial situation that allows researchers to isolate presumed (Hypothesized) causes and measure their effects precisely •experiments used a procedure called RANDOMIZATION-> involves assigning individuals to two groups by chance processes. ->in an experiment involves assigning each individual by chance processes to the group that will be exposed to the presumed cause or to the group that will not be exposed to the presumed cause. DEPENDENT VARIABLE->the presumed effect in a cause-and- effect relationship INDEPENDENT VARIABLE-> presumed cause in a cause-and- effect relationship RELIABILITY->is the degree to which a measurement procedure yields consistent results VALIDITY-> is the degree to which measure actually measures what it is intended to measure ex; sociologists believe leaving people in their natural habit lowers the validity of the experiment SURVEYS->sociologists ask respondents questions about their knowledge, attitudes, or behaviour, either in a face-to-face or telephone interview or in a paper-and-pencil format. •Close-ended question or open-ended questions surveys are made to elicit valid responses by guarding against four dangers: 1.the exclusion of part of the population from the sampling frame 2. the refusal of some people to participate in the survey 3. the unwillingness of some respondents to answer questions frankly 4. the asking of confusing, leading,or inflammatory questions or questions referring to several unimportant or non-current events •when measuring media violence on behaviour survey shows a weaker relationship between exposure to violent mass media and violent behaviour than experiments do and some surveys show no relationship at all between these two variables READING TABLES->A cross classification of cases by at least two variables that allows you to see how, if at all, the variables are associated. RELATIONSHIP-> between two variables exists if the value of one variable changes with the value of the other CONTROL VARIABLES->identify the context for the relationship between independent and dependent variables -there may not always be relationships SPURIOUS RELATIONSHIP->exists between an independent and a dependent variable when a control variable causes change n both the independent and dependent variables ->researchers call phoney relationship spurious Researchers conclude there is a casual connection between two variables when they successfully demonstrate that 1.the variables systematically change together r 2. the independent variable changed before observed changes in the dependent variable 3. the observed relationship is an authentic one SAMPLING In a PROBABILITY SAMPLE->the units have a known and nonzero chance of being selected chosen usually at random SAMPLING FRAME->a list of all the people in the population interest FIELD RESEARCH->is research based on the observation of people in their natural settings. DETACHED OBSERVATION-> involves classifying and counting the behaviour of interest according to a predetermined scheme. REACTIVITY-> occurs when the presence of a researcher causes the observed people to conceal certain things or act artificially to impress the researcher PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION->involves carefully observing people's face-to-face interactions and participating in their lives over a long period of time,thus achieving a deep and sympathetic understanding of what motivates them to act in the way they do. EXISTING DOCUMENTS AND OFFICIAL STATISTICS-> are created by people other than the researcher for purposes other than sociological research •Sociological research is a process that relies on the interplay between subjective assessments and objective confirmation of experience •such as the feminist movement which widened the scope of the formulation of sociological research questions and the interpretation of evidence FAMILIES: PRIMARY SOCIALIZATION->is the basic process of acquiring the bail skills needed to function in society during childhood. Primary socialization usually takes place in a family SECONDARY SOCIALIZATION->is the socialization outside the family after childhood. HIDDEN CURRICULUM->in school involves teaching obedience to authority and conformity to cultural norms, teaches how to be "good citizens" SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM AND SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY THOMAS THEORESM-> "Situations we define as real become real in their consequences" SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY-> an expectation that helps bring about what it predicts PEER GROUPS-> are agents of socialization whose importance grew in the twentieth century. ->it consists of individuals who are not necessarily friends but who are about the same age and of similar status=recognized social position an individual can occupy ->the mass media is a key element in the socialization of children GENDER ROLES-> is the set of behaviours associated with widely shared expectations about how males and females are supposed to act RESOCIALIZATION-> occurs when powerful socializing agents deliberately cause rapid change in a person's values, roles, and self-conception, sometimes against a person's will INITIATION RITE->is a ritual that signifies a person's transition from one group to another and ensures his or her loyalty to the new group 1)separation from the old status and identity 2)degradation, disorientation, and stress 3)acceptance of the new group culture and status TOTAL INSTITUTIONS-> are settings in which people are isolated from the larger society and under the strict control and constant supervision of specialized stuff ex; asylums and prisons ANTICIPATORY SOCIALIZATION->involves taking on the norms and behaviours of the role to which we aspire VIRTUAL COMMUNITY->is an association of people, scattered across the country, continent, or planet, who communicate via computer about a subject of common interest MORAL PANIC-> occurs when many people fervently believe that some form of deviance or crime poses a profound threat to society's well-being. CHAPTER 3: CULTURE •superstitions help people to solve the challenges of life. THREE TYPES OF NORMS: FOLKWAYS,MORED AND TABOOS FOLKWAYS->are the least important norms and they evoke the least severe punishment ex;man walking down street with no top on MORES-(Mor-rays)-> are core norms that most people believe are essential for the survival of their group or their society ex;man walks down street no bottoms on TABOOS->are among the strongest norms. when someone violates a taboo, it causes revulsion in the community an punishment is severe ex; incest MALE PROMISCUITY, FEMALE FER
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