How is gender hierarchy connected to binary thinking? Explain and illustrate your
explanation with an example.
-man/woman, mind/body, rationality/emotion, technology/nature, public sphere/private sphere.
Gender dualism is not neutral but hierarchal. For example, the portrayal of women is linked to
nature. Nature is wild and needs to be tamed and so humanities control and dominate nature just
like how men dominate women`s bodies. Men dominate women`s bodies by telling her what to
wear even though an attire like a corset is restricting and can be harmful. Men are seen as more
rational and believe that the other is underdeveloped and not as logical and hence why they
believe themselves to be more superior. So the power they have over women is gender hierarchy.
-privilege over other (hierarchal) and superior over other (hierarchal). Women are the other to
men and to be human is to be masculine so it leaves femininity as the other.
Name, explain, and illustrate two aspects of West and Zimmerman’s theory Doing Gender.
–gender is seen as an emergent feature of society and how to act in social situations. Gender is an
accomplishment and a claim to membership in society.
performativity – we perform gender according to Hollywood`s norm of what gender might be.
We are compelled and we embody gender in a certain way and gender is seen as an achievement,
what we strive to be. Performance is purposely doing something but performativity is socially
conditioned behaviours to be accepted in society. Like in schools, males are encouraged to be
aggressive and play sports whereas girls are encourage to enter beauty pageants and learning
how to speak eloquently.The media, workplace, sports competition, education are all institutions,
ideas that are seen to produce gender.
-West and Zimmerman believe that doing gender is just creating differences for females and
males that are not natural or biological but doing gender is to just reinforce the ideal of gender.
Males are rewarded for the strengths and athleticism whereas girls are rewarded for their
physical appearances and charm. If we were to blindlessly following doing gender then men is
also doing dominance over women and women are doing passivity and deference to men. Doing
gender just reinforces and sustain the interlocking systems of oppression like patriarchy and
-organized sports is an institution for the expression of masculinity and celebrated by all
Name three different types of feminisms and how they differ in their approach to the study
of gender inequality.
-For many feminists, they believe that sex equates physiological differences whereas gender is
socially constructed differences.
-Liberal: Focus was on equality based approach because it was harder for women to get into
public spheres, they are delegated to be homemakers. Fought for human and equal rights in the
government, workplace and home etc. Critique – try to treat women and men are equal even
when women do not start out at the same position as men when they are born, they are
subjugated to societal pressures to be a woman and yet if they fought for equal rights then they
might not get maternity leave. If you choose them as equal, you have to choose one path or the
other. Focus what on equality rights and opportunities
-cultural/radical: Focus on why culture value masculinity rather than femininity. Mothering and
childrearing is not the problem, but our culture doesn’t value women enough. Masculine traits
are privilege and desired and feminine traits like nurturing and passivity is not. Cultural is
patriarchal and oppressive. Where we should value femininity and nurture our culture. Critique is that not all women fit the caregiving paradigm.
-Marxist: product of capitalism and the sexual division of labour. Capitalism and patriarchy are
intertwined. For example, the nuclear family reproduces this division of labour where women do
a lot of unpaid work in the private spheres and men are recognized and paid for their work in the
public spheres. Women`s functional role is to reproduce and it benefits capitalism because we
need new members to contribute to our economy. Women are seen as docile and sexualize
labourers and are always underpaid compare to their gender counterpart which enhances
patriarchy. Critique is that is judges all women as the same but never look at micro difference
between women like race and sexuality.
Explain the view that colonization was a patriarchal and racial project. Illustrate with an
-Colonialism is an empire conquering another empire to exploite their raw resources for their
own profits. It is the oppression of one group by another and imposing their culture on them
through assimilation. Colonialism is a patriarchal and racist project and the process of conquest
is to weaken the other community by imposing their culture on them. For example, when the
British came over to Canada, they imposed the system of patriarchy on an otherwise matriarchal
society that the Aboriginals had lived by for hundreds of years. Aboriginal women owned lands
and had leadership roles and were respected. The women had autonomy and sexual freedom and
divorce. The Whites did not like this and imposed their patriarchal values on Aborginals men
which weakens the community bond they had for one another. It broken strong ties Aboriginal
women and men once had. It undermine the values they once had, and so it undermine their
peoples. The aboriginal women did not fit the ideological ideals of femininity because they had
too much autonomy which threatened the White`s empire and conquest.
-Colonialization through patriarchy, residential schools and the effects are still ongoing.
-Aboriginal women seen as either pochontas the noble savage or the drudge who are immoral
and socially loose.
-Residential schools where girls were sexual abused and taught to be ashame of their bodies,
taught to be domestic labourers rather than having an education. Trauma and anxiety was passed
-Indian Act late 1800s to late 1900s illustrates how women are not supported. Women health
affected with more chronic diseases and face multiple oppressions. Bill limits women and their
children to pass on their status beyond one generation.
Explain the difference between an essentialist and a social constructionist view of gender
and illustrate with an example.
-Essentialist View believes that men and women are different. Their bodies are different and so
these differences attribute to their behaviours. For example, women are more emotional and
nurturing because of their hormones and reproductive systems whereas men are more predispose
to violence and aggression because of their te