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University of Toronto Scarborough
Christopher Cochrane

1. What is the tension between women’s right to choose abortion and disability rights? Illustrate through an example. • Tensions arise through demands of bodily agency that been expressed through Canadian’s women struggle over abortion • In turn, challenges of ethical & moral q raised by feminist disability analyses of reproductive control • With various technological advances, genetic screening become increasingly popular amongst expecting mothers • Susan Wendell-through her study portrays contrasting tensions & views that stem from discussions of abortion and disability rights • Some believe- women have ‘the right to abortion for any reason they deem appropriate’ and newborns with disabilities have ‘the right to medical treatment whether or not their parents wish them to be treated’ • Showing they value lives of people with disabilities while defending women’s unequivocal rights • On other hand, Jenny Morris argues extensive use of genetic screening for sole reason of aborting potentially disabled fetuses—q right of all people with disabilities to exist • Essentially connecting that disabled individuals are devalues within society and should have never been born • Therefore, woman should have ‘some power’ to abort fetus, but power needs to be balanced against ‘the extent to which fetus has rights as human being’ 2. According to Kimmel, what is the relationship between heterosexuality and masculinity? Illustrate through an example. 3. Explain how Laura Mulvey’s concept of the “masculine gaze” may be used to think the effects of dominant media representations on women. Illustrate through an example. • Media-increasingly a powerful message- the message girls get from a young age and the message boys get from a young age (movie- Miss Representation) • Male gaze- how we view things from male heterosexual point of view • Laura- said when you look at films they look like they are filmed from male point of view • She looks at classical American films- how the way women objectified is not how men are shown • If you are a men, you identify what is on the screen • For a women, you have to adopt the ‘male gaze’ • John Berger- looks at, ways of seeing- interested in construct pictures of women, arranging and composing pictures in a nude way, more likely by certain viewers; focus on different ways of seeing picture of a girll how guy looks at a picture in a sexual way • As women sexually objectified in media- some of its affects include what Feminists said- because a lot of images seen through masculine gaze, males a lot of women want to internalize the gaze—you think of yourself as always being looked at; self objectifying; get up in the morning put makeup on because people are looking at you; cosmetic surgery-example of internalization of masculine gaze • Male gaze- connects to the idea of docile bodies view- how women internalize beauty norms; how women learn beauty norms from the very beginning, how they “self-discipline” their body 4. Define heteronormativity. How is heternormativity sustained through ideological and institutional practices? Provide one example for each (ideological and institutional). • Defining Heteronormativity: Assumption th everyone is heterosexual (can be personal and/or institutional); Being ‘straight’ is normal, other sexualities are deviance from the norm; way that society’s institutions encourage and privilege one particular couple/family formation; idealization of male/female union • Relates to traditional gender roles • Ex- residence roommate assignments, q from friends and family- do you have a boyfriend or girlfriend just because you are a boy or a girl-IDEOLOGICAL; school’s permission slips- assumption that everyone has a mother and a father; Disney movies- Cinderella always about prince and princess, happy ending-heterosexual couple & ideal hetero ending • Heterosexuality as an institution organized & maintained through female wage scale, enforcement of middle-class women’s ‘leisure’( extra time, activities), sexual liberation, holding back education from women (not giving education to women), not seen as part of popular culture, work institutions-how women should have more workload as compared to men women given more workload (NOT SURE ABOUT THIS POINT) 5. Explain the view that all men have male privilege, but not all men benefit equally from patriarchy. Illustrate with an example. • R.W. Connell- gender hierarchy maintained through: discourses/ideologies, institutions, practices • Do all men benefit from patriarchy- this can be done by recognizing another relationship among groups of men, the relationship of complicity with the hegemonic project; masculinities constructed in ways that realize patriarchal dividend, without tensions or risks of being frontline troops of patriarchy, are complicit in this sense • All men have male privilege- institutions gendered—state is a masculine institution; state organizational practices structured in relation to reproductive arena overwhelming majority of top office holders are men because there is gender configuring of recruitment and promotion, gender configuring of internal division of labor and systems of control, policy making, practical routines, ways of mobilizing pleasure and consent • Hegemonic masculinity- at any given time, one form of masculinity rather than others is culturally praised; can be defined as configuration of gender practice which embodies currently accepted answer to problem of legitimacy of patriarchy, which guarantees dominant position of men and subordination of women; successful claim to authority, more than direct violence, that is mark o
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