Final Exam Review
(out of 30, 40% of final grade)
Please note: The final exam will resemble the following questions and format. The main
difference will be that there will be fewer choices on the actual exam. Some questions may
be in the same vein, but have different wording (I am trying to make them as clear as
Part A: Key Concepts (short answers) 4 questions x 5 marks = 20
• Completeness of the answer: Does the answer address all the elements in the question?
• Does the answer show an understanding of idea, argument, or concept being discussed
• Ability to illustrate concepts with appropriate examples
• Clarity of writing ( the points are made in a coherent manner)
****Only six of the following choices will be on the exam and you will answer four of
• Identify relevant readings and lecture notes
• Write out an appropriate answer
• Make sure that you address each part of the question
• Make sure that you explain what your example illustrates
• Most students will benefit from closer attention to organizing your writing 1. ****What is reproductive work? How is it connected to gender inequity?
How is it connected to racial inequity?
-Reproductive work refers to such activities including maintaining the household, caring
for adults and children, and the processes of consumption or making ends meet. It is not
given the same validity of ‘true-work’ and so it creates a cycle of inequality.
-It relates to gender inequity because women do more of this work compared to men.
Women spend an average 2 more hours per day doing unpaid work than do men. Access to
paid work is restricted for women which reproduce a cycle of patriarchy.
-Reproductive work is linked to racial inequity in that coloured people do more of this
work. In the international transfer of care work, migrant domestic workers are limited to
reproductive labour while they ease the entrance of other women into the paid labour force.
With the increasing flow of migrant domestic workers, globalization marks a “new world
domestic order”, meaning an unequal division of care labor between the global South and
-An example of how gender and racial inequities are implicated in reproductive work is
illustrated by nurses trained in Asian nations. Many of these nurses come to western
countries but are limited to jobs as ‘nannies’. As a result, they are deskilled. The Asian
nations support this deskilling so far as they get remittances to boost their economy. 2. What does it mean to say that disability is a social and political issue,
rather than a biomedical one? Discuss using an example.
-Biomedically, disability relates to some form of deficit of an individual.
-People constituted as disabled in society is a socio-political issue. As Michalko suggests,
society is built on the ideology of a “normative body”. Anyone who doesn’t fit the
description is deemed disabled, abnormal, or bodies, minds and senses ‘gone wrong’.
-For example, Rosemary-Garland discusses how disabled people are socially categorized in
society today. Women’s bodies are considered lacking and represented as frail, weak, or
needing to be fixed. Her other concept is identity and how people come to identify
themselves as disabled due to dominant ideologies, which marginalizes them.
-This is also a political issue as demonstrated throughout history. For example in northern
societies, ideas of white supremacy in the Aryan race of being more beautiful and
intelligent led to such actions as genocide of Jews, gypsies, and others who were seen as
deficient. Another example is the practice of selective types for sterilization of Aboriginals
and African Americans. 3. ****How is health an issue of social inequality? Explain by using an
-Much research suggests that health inequities are greatly exacerbated by social factors like
socio-economic status (SES), race and ethnicity.
-Social factors like SES and race or ethnicity shape individual exposure to all psychosocial,
environmental, and biomedical risk factors.
-Also, more privileged people in society who possess resources like income, education, and
social connections enjoy better health and longer lives than those who are deprived.
-A powerful example of this refers to Aboriginals in Canada and the many health
challenges they face. They have worse health status than non-Aboriginals. The health
challenges of racial/ethnic groups should be viewed in light of socio-cultural and economic
oppression against which the Aboriginal groups have struggled. Aboriginals are
marginalized and face great socio-economic challenges such as poverty and
unemployment. Since social factors like SES are linked to health, it is no surprise they have
higher mortality rates than non-Aboriginals. Aboriginal women are triply burdened by their
race, gender, and social status. Aboriginals have worse health than non-Aboriginals; Native
women tend to have worse health than Native men; and these women have less access to
paid work so they have lower SES. These factors converge to negatively affect Aboriginal
women’s health outcomes. 4. ****How would you account for the conditions faced by Ontario’s migrant
workers from a Marxist perspective? How do workers resist their unjust
-One Marxist idea on social inequality deals with class struggle as the engine of history.
The Migrant Worker program in Canada illustrates this by it showing roots from slavery.
The employer (higher class) controls the wages of the workers (lower class), which makes
workers dependent on the employer. Basically, the employer controls the workers
-A second Marxist idea is the separation of classes into property owners and workers. In
this case, the employer owns the large farm or business, as well as the workers. The
workers are essentially slaves to the employer. When the workers get into legal trouble,
their employers are accountable.
-A third Marxist idea is that mode of production allows property owners to extract surplus
value from the workers. In this case, most of the work done by workers is like an assembly
line, which is specific and efficient. Also, wages are fixed and below minimum wage so
even if workers produce more output, they are not paid accordingly.
-A fourth Marxist idea is division of labour and alienation. In this case, work is repetitive
and tedious. Workers become deskilled and detached from the final product.
-One way workers resist their unjust conditions is through wildcat strikes (strike without
unions). Other methods rely on help from others like Chris’ (guest speaker) volunteer
group. These groups listen to workplace problems and fight back through petitions, rallies,
etc. 5. ****How do ideas about “Third World” women, institutions, and practices
come together to promote capitalist interests? Discuss by using a specific example.
-Women migrant workers from the Philippines are an example of how institutions like the
government promote capitalist interests.
-In the Philipines, the government is in the practice of selling its own women to
industrialized countries as a source of cheap labour; they do this because of a program set
up by the IMF and World Bank.
-Philipines’ “Labour Export Policy” (LEP) seeks to alleviate problems of massive
unemployment, trade deficits, and foreign debt.
-For many Filipino women, ideas of working in industrialized countries seem appealing,
not knowing that the structure breeds social inequality.
-These migrant workers have no assistance from employers to build networks. Instead
workers are deliberately isolated and deskilled to keep them dependent on the employers
and focused on their work. This allows employers to extract more value from them.
-The labour laws that exist aren’t structured to protect the basic rights to food, shelter and
liveable wages. This helps to maximize the profits and interests of the capitalists.
-The Filipino government supports the idea of deskilling their women and other capitalist
interests because they rely upon the remittances of these workers to prop up the economy.
-As a result, hiring women from the Philipines has become common practice and highly
profitable since ideas of cheap labour and hard worker are associated with these women. 6. ****(7)Discuss three issues affecting Ontario’s migrant workers and show
how they connect to dominant ideologies, structures and practices.
- Ontario’s migrant workers face various issues related to dominant ideologies, structures,
and practices of social inequality.
-First, according to immigration laws they cannot apply for permanent residence or full
citizenship. This issue demonstrates structural inequality since these workers do not have
access to entitlements that citizens have. The idea is that they are only meant to work here
temporarily as cheap labour. For example, these migrant workers can’t bring their families
with them to deliberately make them not want to stay permanently.
-Second, their work programs are employer driven. Workers are not allowed to work for
other employers. This practice essentially represents slavery since the worker is threatened
with deportation if the worker does n