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SOCB48 Textbook Notes for exam

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Denis Wall

CHAPTER 1 Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives in Family StudiesSocialization the process whereby a child learns how to think and behave according to the ways of the society and the group in which he or she is born Children are not passive recipients in the process they accept reject or transform the cultural messages that they receive from parents and others Society transmits its culture through process of socializationAlso through socialization that a society perpetuates its gender racial and economic structure as well as the roles that flow from itInstitution is a recognized area of social life that is organized along a system of widely accepted norms that regulate behaviorsThe elements of organization and norms contribute to the predictability of life people know what to expect its a shared culture When a society is small and there is a great deal of consensus on values norms and behaviors an institution such as the family can benefit from this stability life scripts do not change much over the generations and the level of continuity is high however such a high level of stability can also contribute to the lasting subordination of women for ex or the rejection of alternative types of families Cdn society less consensus about fam norms and behaviorsmany different backgroundsHow Can Families Be Defined2002 Stats Can defn a couple of any sexual combination with or without children married or cohabiting as well as a lone parent of any marital status with at least one child living in the same dwelling or a grandparent raising a grandchild Family is a social group an institution and an intergenerational group of individuals related to each other by blood adoption or marriage cohabitation Nuclear Familiesa parent and his or her children as well as two parents with their childrenwhen a person or couple has a child whether by birth or adoption a nuclear family of procreation is formed what is important is not whether the offspring are biological or adopted but that a new generation is added ie grandmother raising grandson is also a nuclear familyhowever a husband and wife a cohabiting couple and a samesex couple fall under the category of couples They constitute a nuclear family only upon the arrival of their first child These couples are members of their own families of origin and orientationWhen parents are divorced children may experience a binuclear family half of their nuclear family is themselves and the mother and the other half themselves and the fatherwhen brothers and sisters share a household together without their parents this is often referred to ashorizontal nuclear family because there is only one generation involvedExtended FamiliesExtended families living together under one roof multigenerational households have never been the norm in Canada except for some Native groupsEnglish and French arrived with tradition on nuclearitymainly bc life expectancy was too short for such a pattern to emerge on a large scaleQuebec 19th and 20th centuriesparents lived with their children when widowed or illthreegenerational households have increase substantially in Canada from 19861996 mainly due to immigration from Asia and the return home of Adult children with their own childrenMajority of these families live in citiesOnly a minority of individuals actually share a household with members of their extended family although some live near relatives The level of exchange taking place between nuclear family and extended family varies by coresidence proximity of neighborhood and even due to emotional reasonsFictivekinship bonds mother fathers close friendaunt uncleTypes of Union and MarriagePolygyny a man with 2 or more wivesprevalent in muslim countries and is more easily maintained among welltodo in rural areasPolyandrywomen married to two or more menmostly brothers1993 canadian cohabitational unions were given same rights and obligations as marriages for incometax purposes property held in common and health benefits generally after twothree years of coresidence in all provinces except Alberta Live Apart Together LAT couples couples that maintain separate households who may or may not be married Nearly 23 of LAT couples lead this lifestyle because of family duties or work requirements while the other third mentioned the need to retain their independence as a reason Relevance of DefinitonsSome critics opt for broader defn of family that includes any person one wishes to recognize as such or shares a household with emphasis on intimate relations which is claimed to be more egalitarian and inclusive than families However this broad inclusiveness as to what constitutes a family is problematic for analytical and social policy purposes Macrosociology studies largescale phenomena and developments in a society such as its social structure and organization Deals with economic forces social class gender and racial stratification as well as cultural contexts such as religion and value systems Microsociology focuses on the interactions between individuals within smaller contexts such as a family or a group of friends Examines relationships between family members as well as the impact of these relationships on human development for both children and their parents When dealing with families there is a constant interaction between macro and microsociolgyTheoretical PerspectivesStructural Functionalismanalyzes a societys organization its structure and the linkages between its various systems Within this perspective the family is an important unit that fulfills key functions for society such as reproduction and child socialization
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