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Exam note on Lecture 4 - Social Construction of Deviance.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Steven Hayle

LECTURE 4 - Police and the Social Construction of Deviance and Normality (KKK) Critical Race Theory -White supremacy and racial power are maintained over time => LAW may play a role in this process -Racism is engrained in the fabric and system of AMERICAN society -Power structures are based on white privilege + white supremacy, which perpetuates the marginalisation of racial minorities -power structures are inherent in + maintained by institutions Criminal Justice Actors -statistics don't give a full accurate account => only a partial account because not all gets reported/noticed -cops are the key to this bottleneck, what they decide to report is what enters statistics -statistics are socially constructed therefore => not an objective measure of reality Racial Discrimination- Some Concepts -Direct Discrimination (De Jure) – Racial discriminatory practices that have been enshrined in LAW -e.g. slavery, when it was legal -Direct Discrimination (De Facto) – persistence of racial discriminatory practices even in the face of LAWS or POLICIES designed to eliminate racial discrimination -Indirect Discrimination – Practices that are equal in a formal sense, but racially discriminatory in practice -e.g. policy that gives preference for more experience => biased against younger applicants -Institutional Racism – Racist actions are built into the policy or mode of action of institutions irrespective of the attitudes of those individuals who carry out the activities of the institution -Contextual Discrimination – Racial discrimination is likely under certain specific conditions but not others. For example, in certain places and at certain times Police and Racial Discrimination: Racial Profiling -2002 Youth Crime Victimisation Survey – (Tanner & Wortley) -3, 383 high Toronto high school students randomly surveyed between 1999 and 2000 -Questioned about how often they have been stopped + searched by the police in last two years -also questioned about delinquent activities in the last year -Multivariate Analysis – When examining the statistical relationship between an IV and a DV, we control for other variables that might explain the relationship -i.e. age, gender, subjective social class, living circumstances, everyday leisure activities -BEHAVIOUR was statistically controlled for in their study -Black youth are 4.14 times more likely to be stopped by the police compared to white youth. -Black youth are 6.38 times more likely to be searched by the police compared to white youth -49% of black youth who report no delinquent activity have been stopped and searched -vs. only 17% of similar white youth -83% of black youth who report the highest levels of delinquent activity have been stopped and searched -vs. 82% of similar white youth Social construction of skin colour as deviance -Master Status – (Everett Hughes) => Primary identifying characteristic of an individual -study showed skin color was being used as a master status even though it is irrelevant to the question of delinquency -Auxiliary Status - other statuses that become secondary or subordinate to the master status determining trait Ku Klux Klan -First KKK founded by six Confederate veterans on December 24 , 1865 during the reconstruction of the South after the Civil War -wanted to control the dramatically changed social situation in the South + restore white supremacy -Used public VIOLENCE against BLACK people as a form of intimidation. -Many states responded to the violence by passing anti-KKK legislation -KU KLUX KLAN ACT OF 1871- Federal law enacted that was used to enforce civil rights provisions under the constitution -1870 => federal court deems the KKK to be a terrorist organization -State and local authorities rare
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