Week 10 Guest Lecture
CSIS - Canadian Security Intelligence Service
Formal and Informal policing and security
Fits into definition of policing but not well understood
- CSIS key mission: intelligence sharing and crime prevention, through informal connections in the community. Organizations like CSIS know a
lot about us, through neighbors, etc. CSIS is dependent on informal policing than formal.
o No arrest power, done by police
o Not armed, just does surveillance work, intelligence activities
o Not even peace officers
o An investigating unit – they protect Canadians, national security.
o Unique because they are civilian and have no power
o Both formal and informal
- Police culture used to be dominated by white heterosexual catholic males.
- An easy tendency towards violence for solution.
- 30 years ago, you didn‟t even need high school degree to be a police officer. It is only recent when policing became professionalized.
Developments that changed classic police culture
1) Shift towards community policing
Police officer should be part of the community and listen to what community had to say.
2) Neo-liberal model part of which is recasting of public as „customers‟
We no longer talk about police forces but police services.
3) Diversification of police recruitment/body
Not just white heterosexual males, but also minorities.
4) New political sensitivity around policing
Technology and social media, the way that policing and regulation intensely embedded in politics.
- Loftus argues, no, it hasn‟t made any difference.
- Police have an exaggerated sense of mission towards police role that they should always be fighting for crimes. But they don‟t, they do
patrolling at most times.
- Simple, decontextualized understanding of criminality (outside of community context)
- Re-enforce thru on the job socialization and adapt to situations
This is a neo-liberal idea that they serve the public “We‟re not fucking Sainsbury‟s” (page 6)
- A Masculine Ethos
- Confrontational approach
- Often present in story-telling, figurative language, about what they do.
Managing Policing Realities
- From the strain between expectations of what police work involves and its daily realities
- But policing is often unrewarding and monotonous
- Often critical of „soft laws‟ and lenient judges
- Amplified by the public expectation of the police (that they should be able to do anything)
- Maintain control and extract respect from the public
- Trained to take their patrol area as a “territory of normal appearances”
- „The Attitude test” (31:00)
o Exchange when someone is not respectful, they „stamp‟ their authority
o Preserving dominance that hasn‟t changed but Prof isn‟t sure.
- People get upset over quotas because this is zero-tolerance policing, not discretionary policing.
- Question of Police legitimacy – police need to be seen as they are doing something
Isolation and Loyalty (great deal of this in police themselves)
- Alienated from the public – and subsequently forms strong bonds with colleagues
- Still Canteen culture - white, heterosexual, male character of some shifts
They have exaggerated mission of work, but it is not exciting at all. It is masculine exploitative, and engage in informal work process. Often social
criticized and there are consequences, thus often isolated.
The policing culture hasn‟t really changed. It makes policing issues hard, and sometimes it is just an erroneous assumption. Sometimes you have to be
careful linking cause and effect. There are narrow assumptions around social changes. We need to be cautious of structural changes.
Stephen Lawrence - April 22, 1993
- He was at a bus stop with his friend Dwayne Brooks.
- Stabbed twice and murdered Eltham, South London
- Murderers: Neil Acourt, Jamie Acourt, Luke Knight, Gary Dobson, David Norris
MacPherson: “The Stephen Lawrence murder was simply and solely and unequivocally motivated by racism”
CPS (Crown Prosecution Service) declines to prosecute because of insufficient evidence
Because of poor police investigation (incompetence, institutional racism, leadership failure)
Lawrence's parents launch a private prosecution but fails
The 5 accused are now protected by „double jeopardy‟.
Coroner‟s Court Inquest
Ends with jury verdict of “unlawfully killed by five white youths”.
Led to public outcry and Daily Mail
Home Secretary, Jack Straw, announces an Inquiry, “for the investigation and prosecution of racially motivated crimes”
Embarrassment to the UK police
Sensitivity of racism
Public Hearings in the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry begin. Sir MacPherson says the five originally arrested must give evidence or face
When the 5 guys came out of the crowd, there was a crowd of people and they got into a physical fight.
“Appalling racist or raving bigotry”
“Racism conjoined with an obsession to extreme violence”
24 February 1999
Inquiry completed by Sir Macpherson
What If the color of victim and attacker were reversed? “In my submission, history suggests that the police would have probably
swamped the estate that night and they would remain there, probably for the next however long it took, to ensure that if the culprits
were on the same estate something would be done about the situation”
Initial Senior Investigating Officers‟ investigation was characterized by ignorance, disorganization, incompetence, poor planning,
passive attitude, insensitivity to victims, racial stereotyping, use of inappropriate and offensive language.
No first aid
Poor family liaison of accusing the family
Conduct/words/practices that advantage/disadvantage people because of their colour, culture, or ethnic origin. Both subtle and overt
forms are damaging.
Police used words like Negro to describe Brooks and Lawrence.
Collective failure of an organization to provide appropriate/professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic
origin. It can be seen/detected in processes, attitudes, and behaviours, which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice,
ignorance, thoughtlessness, and racist stereotyping, which disadvantage minority ethnic people.
Definition blended different „types‟ of racism
1) Unwitting (individual behaviour) racism
2) Conscious racism
3) Organizational processes
Universal definition change in police and other agencies:
Racist incident: any incident perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person
This definition is very broad and hard to apply. The word “perceived” is a confusing word. Difficult definition.
Codes of practice should be established by the Home Office for this definition
Reporting methods re-established
Massive review of incident investigation process
Family Liaison in racism awareness
Guidelines on handing of witnesses and victims
First Aid re-trained annually
Racism awareness training
Given the public outcry and political pressure, these were immediately accepted.
Jack straw announced that government repeals „double jeopardy‟
2010 DNA evidence found (Dobson: blood & Norris: hair)
2 of 5 men were arrested in connection to death of Lawrence, because they found 2 things:
They satisfied the verdict with FRESH EVIDENCE, then it occurred murder thus classic double jeopardy was set aside that they can
2 of 5 men were arrested for the murder.
Both considered guilty – 15 to 17 years sentenced.
Judge themselves said it was a great victory.
But even after the convictions, their reputation was still ruined.
- Police are public service. The forefront of social contract makes them special, that they are the only state officials that use legitimate force –
which requires special protocols a