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Women's and Gender Studies
Connie Guberman

 Epistomology: - The knower, known, process of knowing - A theory of knowledge, including assumption about how we come to know what we know - All women experiences are collaborated into one experience. e.g. workplace women refer to "workers" - Critical feminist approach it's impossible to understand the social world * The Feminist Theories 1)Gendered Structure & social relations 2) Gendered Relations inequalities in social relations 3) Historical perception& socio - cultural productions 4) Challenges traditional ways of thinking as it works to make a difference  Sexism in Research Androcentricity: - View of the world from a male perspective. - Woman are seen as Passive objects (they are dependent upon the male) - Woman should be seen as subjects of history (actors) Overgeneralization: - Study deals with only one sex and presented to both sexes - it focues mainly on one gender but claims to incorporate all the genders within it. (e.g. Airbags in USA were Model for the protection of average height men. this will not present majority of the woman) Gender Insensitivity: - Ignoring sex as a socially important variable -Sex is neglecrted from social important variables - Occurs when study is based on only one gender (usually men) and doesnt view the effects both gender. (e.g. Some reports : Policy statements, fail to report the sec of its participants.) Overspecificity: - Study which explains the existence of certain events only occuring to certain gender and may or may not be applied to both. (e.g. Females are less likely to have heart problems then male.) Familism: - Family is used as a smallest unit of study. Double Standards: - Treating or indentifying same behaviour, traits within different gender. -e.g Maternal leave is paid thus this shows society is rewarding the mother for her gendered expectations. However for the paternal leave it is not paid as it does not fit according to the societal norms. Sex Appropriateness: - Certain sex has a certain role they innate at birth. However it is not truly sex specified attributes. (e.g. Women are emotional men are not. Men can also be emotional.) Sexual Dichotism: - Sex is treated as two separate society of biological, physical and mental behaviours. -it often leads to exaggeration of sex differences. Scientific Rationality: - Key value, mindset. - For woman it is irrational - When research is tied to scientific method it misses relational readings - Science is an active way of learning and understanding society. Yet if tied truly with scientific research causes bias research to be resulted. Ethonography: - A qualitative research designed to aim at exploring cultural phenomena. - Researched go to explore the way females in particular culture are raised according to certain cultural expectations. The researchers will interact with a group of females and questions them about their personal
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