A helpful study guide covering ALL theories

Women's and Gender Studies
Course Code
Victoria Tahmasebi

of 10
Tutorial FSGA02 22:11
Framework for understanding Opression
1. Additive – black +woman +sexuality
2. Hierarchical
Interlocking – intersecting – we should be open to understanding concepts and relating to all such
as racism sexuality gender – Anita Hill
- 198= Matrix of domination – a web of oppressions/ violence
Cites are different- oppression is one
202- Identity politics and Hegemonic domain of power – system and structure of domination
looking at economic , poltical,
post- modern Feminism on bodies
Masculinity 22:11
Visible through gender studies, images of masculinity – often confusing and contradictory, men are
strong, courageous, competent and always in control
Women praise men who can express their vulnerability- most men fall short or feel when they try
to satisfy both standards
Historical Periods
Six Historical Periods- the first is Epic Man- epic areas of Greece and Rome- ideal man= epic
man, major features were action, physical strength, courage, loyalty and beginning of patriarchy-
Second period- Spiritual Man- teaching of Jesus- ideal= spiritual, self , restricted sexual
activity, anti homosexual attitudes, strong patriarchal system, Third Era- Chivalric Man- self
sarifice, service to the lady, Renaissance Man- 16 century social system, rationality,
intellectual, self exploration, Bourgeois Man- success in business, manner and then there was
Modern Man- individualistic, masculinity must be validated by soldiery, features physical war,
heroic independence, risk taking, dominance, and competition – and those who do not
participate- sport is the only – brutalized bodies, early life there is enormous pressure to achieve
masculine bodies
Hegemonic Masculinity
Idealized norms- performed in so many different ways- this notion assorts that a number of
competitive activities are peformed according to particular times and the characteristics or
features that become ideal are those that are acted out by the most powerful men. These men are
most likely to be white, heterosexual and middle class
Harms men in subordinate status, such as men of colour, non heterosexual men, poor men
Harms women- defined in opposition to the men and feminine traits
Norms- successfully acted out through a series of norms- traditional norms and emerging ones
Norms= informal and form and are institutionalized – researchers have listed 10- 1st = acceptence
of anti feminine norms- qualities associated with feminine characteristics such as vulnerability
and expression of emotion- comes with huge costs for men out there, suicide is the most common
way 15-24 to die Interpersonal Relations- revealing insecurities and difficult situations,
restraints from opening up causes suicide, heart disease, back pain, tension headaches, intimate
relationships between men is often discouraged, message that tells men if they exhibit to women
to much emotion- in other words the emotional expression drives women away than bringing
them closer- Success Norm- men are driven to succeed at all costs- referred to status norm, this
norm tells men, that they need to be look upto- prestige is associated with money makes the man,
men are told that ensuring family security is their top priority in life- men more than women
plunge into depression or violence when they lose their job- Gendered Occupation Norm- men
are threatened with women enter their traditional occupation- Intellectual Success Norm- men
are expected to show their intellectual superiority, traditional but still shows today
Toughness Norm: shouldnt ask for help
Aggression Norm: Key marker of aggression, lack of compromise, central to central hegemonic
belief, more aggressive – men carry aggression to far- violence in work or at home- studies show
that show on school violence, that these incidents anti feminist- toxic masculinity or violent
masculinity, gender violence, date rape, sexual assault, these norm was institutionalized , until
Masculinity 22:11
the last century, it was the mans right before, domestic abuse is the lading cause of injury to
North American women- 1/3 of women are killed by their husbands or boyfriends- more men are
victims of male violence then women
Sexual Mastery: Macho men norm- sexual beings, living and ongoing in sexuality in all forms,
their creditability and bonding are achieved through sexual convos – majority of them understand
that they can not live up their sexual selves
Homophobia Norm: Hegemonic relation- in order to be a man one cannot be a homosexual-
learned early and reinforced through media and interaction in social institutions
Tenderness Norm: Identified by men who accept sensitivity- those men who are actively with
their children are more sensitive , men who adhere to this norm strive between sensitive
relationship with men- subordinate to all other normsemerging norm
Conclusion- 134.5 million fewer visits than men each year
Hegemonic masculinity is the number one hazard for young men – a real man is aggression,
violent, settles issues through violence, winner not whiner, heterosexual, hypersexual
Performance, masculinity, violence, real self
Historical, social, historical
Ritualistic- performance of masculinity is scripted
Post- modern Feminism- disrupts categories and norms, questions rituals and hegemonic
ideals – disrupt gender norms – gender spatial- temporal – what is seen as hot and cool in UK
can be seen as homosexual in Bangladesh – Our bodies are texts – fluid categories- that their
not static or not innate but have been created in a time and space