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Final

All lectures/notes for linguistic/socio part of the test

9 Pages
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Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT100Y1
Professor
Kalmar/ Boddy

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Anthropology: the study of what it means to be human
Homo Sapien: humans that know
Nature - the genetic makeup
Nurture - given by society.
-Culture is considered nature; however, by nature we are heavier on the nurture side, which
makes us human
-Culture and language are programmed into us. They are part of our genetic makeup and are
called universals. Specific languages and specific cultures are particulars. They are learned.
-Social transition (learning) is more flexible than genetic transition. Major changes can occur
within a generation or two without changing species. However, it can get complicated (for
example: people are taller - is it culture or genes?)
The Origins of Anthropology
-anthropology developed in the 19th century in the West
-it was largely a disciplines for explaining the non-west
-they ranked language on a scale of primitive to advanced, even though all language follows the
same structure. Schlegel falsely wrote that the Indo European language was the most advanced
because it spread all over the world.
-it was the same with culture:
Primitive cultures were the lowest. They had not changed through time.
Nomads
Agricultural Civilizations
Modern Western World considered the most civilized because ittook over the world”
-Race does not exist. It is a folk notion. Some looks can correlate with genes, but not enough to
consider ‘races. They still categorize race today in ways that dont make much sense - some
colour, some ethnicity, etc. The origin categorization wasblack, white, red, yellow
-One Drop Rule: one drop of Black blood made you Black. This proves that racial classifications
are made by society. The black and white races were invented with the discovery of America and
the start of the slave trade. “Whiteness was thought to represent freedom, and therefore much be
protected.
-Ethnocentrism: racial and cultural prejudice
Theories:
Bronislaw Malinowski: each culture responds to its own niche equally well
Franz Boas: (1858-1942) each culture is language, cultural and physical type. A higher culture is
one that recognizes that we are all equally human
Margaret Mead: Orderly, complex customs (Bali)
Cultural Relativism: we should never judge other cultures, and there are no universal standards of
progress. They say “universal really means western.
example: In some cultures its okay to punish your children by hitting them. Do we consider this
culture and leave it, or say theres a universal standard and step in?
www.notesolution.com
Language
- According to Chomsky, all languages have nouns and verbs because humans can only process
certain language rules by nature
-Language does not have to be spoken (ex: sign language)
-We express language through channels (speech, writing, signing)
-Language does not have to be communicated: we have internal language, too, called internal
narratives. They help us understand relationships and the environment. The Ancient Greeks
understood this concept: logos meant both reason and language.
-Internal language, like specific languages, has to be learned. Babies learn it by listening to
others. Monologue only happens after dialogue is internalized (understood).
Signification: making sense through signs
Classic Structuralist communication model: The speaker (encoder) -> channel -> receiver
(decoder)
-however, this is not right. It assumes that there is something that has to be decoded independent
of language.
Classic Saussurean view of Signification (Ferdinand de Saussere)
-Signifier (what you see) and signified (the meaning). Both of these make the sign.
-For example, a winding road sign. The picture signifies the winding road. The signifier is the
road sign (because you see it).
Signs: things that stand for other things (words, pictures, etc). Everything is a sign.
Types of signs:
-words
-symbols: signs that are arbitrary (have no meaning) and conventional
-example: most words are signs. They have no relation to the actual thing. Book in
English and libre in French are both words for “book”.
-icons: have some aspect of their referent (have some meaning to the thing)
-example: pictures, recordings, footprints, Windows logo
-also some words: onomatopoeia, for example, Bang, but not oink-oink
-indexical: does not reproduce any aspect of what it stands for, but it has an existential
relationship with its referent (it points to something else)
- for example, smoke is an index of fire (smoke points to fire)
-a mole hill
-speaking with an accent indexes the speaker as not a native born
-Semiotics: the study of signs
-Understanding can be constructed by language. For example, in Japanese, blue and green mean
the same thing. They dont see them as different.
www.notesolution.com
-Reality: must be verifiable and socially constructed.
Levels of Language
Text (studied in discourse analysis)
Sentences (studied in syntax)
Words (studied in morphology)
Meaningless units of sound:
phonems (studied in phonology)
phones (studied in phonetics)
Text: any self-contained piece of language (conversations, the Bible,Fire!”)
-it is anything with meaning
Context: the meaning and function can change, depending on the context. It is whats outside the
actual text but still relevant to it.
Relationality: items derive their function/meaning from their relationship to other parts of the
text and to the context
Syntax: the study of sentence structure (the way words and phrases are combined to make
sentences).
-Chomsky said that sentences can be grammatical (syntax) and unacceptable
Syntactic categories
-Number Agreement: The kitten-s drive-0 Sheila crazy (plural - noun/verb agree in number)
The kitten-0 drive-s Sheila crazy (singular)
-this is not all languages; Japanese does not have number agreement
-Gender Agreement:
-english does not have it
-French: Cette province est belle; Ce province est beau
-this has nothing to do with social/biological gender
Morphology: the structure of words (spoken, not written)
Morpheme: the smallest unit of language that carries meaning
ex: two morphemes: sipp-ed (the -ed is meaningful because without it, sip and sipped
would mean the same thing)
ex: three morphemes: care-ful-ly
ex: two morphemes: shoe-s
ex: stud-ent, assist-ant, presid-ent, account-ant, frisbee (one morpheme)
-a zero morpheme is at the end of all singulars (ex: university-0)
Allomorphs: theyre a variant of morphemes. Found in specific positions within in the word.
d, b, g makes a -z noise. Rods, Labs, Hogs
t, p, k makes a -s noise. Rats, Tips, Cooks
c (ch), j (dg) makes a -iz noise. Bitches, Judges
Phonemes: units of the sound system of a language. They’re not sounds, but classes of sounds.
-in english, they dont matter as much as in other language, where the phoneme can make a
totally different word
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Anthropology: the study of what it means to be human Homo Sapien: humans that know Nature - the genetic makeup Nurture - given by society. - Culture is considered nature; however, by nature we are heavier on the nurture side, which makes us human - Culture and language are programmed into us. They are part of our genetic makeup and are called universals. Specific languages and specific cultures are particulars. They are learned. - Social transition (learning) is more flexible than genetic transition. Major changes can occur within a generation or two without changing species. However, it can get complicated (for example: people are taller - is it culture or genes?) The Origins of Anthropology - anthropology developed in the 19th century in the West - it was largely a disciplines for explaining the non-west - they ranked language on a scale of primitive to advanced, even though all language follows the same structure. Schlegel falsely wrote that the Indo European language was the most advanced because it spread all over the world. - it was the same with culture: Primitive cultures were the lowest. They had not changed through time. Nomads Agricultural Civilizations Modern Western World considered the most civilized because it took over the world - Race does not exist. It is a folk notion. Some looks can correlate with genes, but not enough to consider races. They still categorize race today in ways that dont make much sense - some colour, some ethnicity, etc. The origin categorization was black, white, red, yellow - One Drop Rule: one drop of Black blood made you Black. This proves that racial classifications are made by society. The black and white races were invented with the discovery of America and the start of the slave trade. Whiteness was thought to represent freedom, and therefore much be protected. - Ethnocentrism: racial and cultural prejudice Theories: Bronislaw Malinowski: each culture responds to its own niche equally well Franz Boas: (1858-1942) each culture is language, cultural and physical type. A higher culture is one that recognizes that we are all equally human Margaret Mead: Orderly, complex customs (Bali) Cultural Relativism: we should never judge other cultures, and there are no universal standards of progress. They say universal really means western. example: In some cultures its okay to punish your children by hitting them. Do we consider this culture and leave it, or say theres a universal standard and step in? www.notesolution.com
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