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ANT203Y1- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 35 pages long!)


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT203Y1
Professor
Julia Gamble
Study Guide
Midterm

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UTSG
ANT203Y1
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1: Introduction to Evolutionary Fact and Theory
Scopes Monkey Trial: Can evolution be taught in public schools?
Scopes was found to be guilty, was fined $100.
The verdict was overturned a year later on a technicality (the law remained)
The law was repealed in 1967
Anthropology as a field:
Comes from Greek: anthropos (human) and logia (study)
Study of human and non-human primates
Divided into
Archaeology: Study of patterns of behaviour and material record of humans in the past
Biological: study of biological facets of human and non-human primates
Subdivided into paleoanthropology (study of fossil remains)
Cultural: Patterns of behaviour humans exhibit in families, relationships, laws, moral codes,
business, art etc.
Tools of cultural anthropology:
Ethnography: study of a specific culture
Ethnology: comparative study of cultures around the world
Linguistic: study of language, its construction, and origins
Anthropology takes a:
Holistic approach: draws in knowledge from all subdisciplines to answer larger questions about
primates and humans
Comparative approach: relies on specific studies to generate a large amount of info and then
compare data across populations
Historical approach: corroborate information using knowledge from past insights and scientists
to make sure personal and cultural bias do not affect our conclusions and observations
Anthropology is a scientific discipline:
Requires critical thinking (taking control of information presented and examining it)
Uses scientific method:
Observe a fact (a verifiable, observable truth), hypothesize and test
Now instead of observe and hypothesize, we use hypothetical-deductive approach (don't
observe but instead, use existing knowledge)
Scientific collaboration: doesn't necessarily mean collaborators work together (sometimes,
people publish and die, and their findings are later used as collaboration/inspiration)
eg. Mendel (unknown during his lifetime, but his work was the basis for genetics)
Paradigm: the predominant way of thinking (this can cause bias)
Evolution as a fact and theory:
Fact: evolution is biological change across generations (this is a fact because fossils prove that
change occurs)
Theory: explains HOW that change occurs (using natural selection)
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Greek and Roman beliefs:
Scalae Natura/ Great chain of being: all life forms are ranked in linear order (gods, males,
elephants down to worms)
Idea of essentialism: there is an ideal type, everything else is a modification of that type
Heliocentric theory: the earth revolves around the sun
originally proposed by Copernicus, added to by Galileo
Galileo also proposed the atomic theory
Francis Bacon: introduced notion of scientific method into the community
Newton :theory of gravity
By 1600s: heliocentrism, atomic theory and gravity were getting more popular
Scientific collaborations:
John Ray:
English naturalist, classified plants and animals on the basis of similarities
Laid foundation for Linnaeus
Edward Tyson: One of the first primatologists (comparative anatomy of chimps)
Robert Hooke: believed that fossils represent extinct organisms and proposed extinctions happened due
to changes in the earth
Nicolas Steno:
F ound the science of stratigraphy (study of rock and soil layers)
Proposed that strata represented chronological history of a changing planet
Both Steno and Hooke believed in the Bible, so to explain how so much change could have occurred in
6k years, they proposed catastrophism (great disasters regularly befell the earth causing massive change
in short periods of time)
Linnaeus:
Father of taxonomy (system of naming and classying organisms
Grouped organisms according to similarities in anatomical features
Used binomial nomenclature (genus species)
Species – genus – family – order – phylum
This naming system challenged the great chain of being because it placed all organisms at the
same level
Believed in the fixity of species (no new species could arise from others)
Buffon:
First one to challenge age of the earth and study natural history from a non biblical perspective
Did not believe that one species could become another but DID believe that one form could
degrade into lower forms
Pointed out that not all features have a purpose (unlike Linnaeus who believed each divine
feature had a function)
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