Study Guides (400,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSG (10,000)
ANT (300)
Study Guide

ANT253H1 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Italian Language, Marcel Danesi, Grammar


Department
Anthropology
Course Code
ANT253H1
Professor
Marcel Danesi
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 71 pages of the document.
ANT253H1

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

January 10th, 2017
ANT253 Lecture #1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE
What is Language?
- SOCIO-LINGUISTICS: the study of language as an intrinsic part of social systems
- LINGUISTICS: the study of thought and speech
- LEXICON: collection of meaning-bearing forms, the potential stock of all lexemes in a language
o Key to understanding social systems, both their origins and their current constitution
- Way of communication
- De-centre language
o Bring back images, disconnected
o Cubist movement
o Movement of expressionism was based on anti-linguistic
- Buddhist meditation is another way of saying let me get rid of language
- PANINI: described the Sanskrit language, how grammar and vocabulary mirror social systems
o A form of understanding called epistemology
o Man named panini was also a mathematician
o Looked at the pronunciation of words, which led to the study of modern-day sound
systems (world views, belief systems, modern interactions)
o Took a poem: the way we understand them is how bits and pieces come together
o What are the rules of putting things together?
o Incompletely In - complete ly (“complete” is part of the meaning-bearing forms,
called the “lexicon”)
in and ly are grammar
Taught by Panini
- LOGOS: Greek word that means both “word” and “reason or mind”, faculty united thought and
speech
- Language allows us to refer to objects, states, and events in the world with sound clusters
o Thinking of things like the meaning of existence, the reason why someone did something
Rather than reacting, we are thinking (evolutionary achievement)
- Each language is used to solve universal problems of knowledge and of social organization
- LANGUAGE ATTRITION: reduction, weakening or loss of a first, second, third, or more
language in an individual, person or in a community
o Language is dying
o Biosphere put at risk when speeches die
o If languages die, we are shrinking our cultural sphere
o We are the lesser for it
o Pipe dream: everyone will learn English
- Group formations
- LANGUAGE FAMILIES: groups of languages related to each other historically, the
classification of language
o The language you speak was part of a larger community of languages which broke up
from it and developed different characteristics
o Ex// Latin roots French, Italian, Spanish
o ‘sister languages’ =
o Understand the DIASPORA
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

o No culture without language
What Do All Languages Have?
- (1) “They have a finite set of distinctive sounds used to make words or smaller units, ad
infinitum; the sounds are called phonemes and the units morphemes. Languges might also have
symbols for imprinting the words on surfaces or other physical media in order to preserve
messages
o Cave Paintings preserve monument on wall
Where you find humans, you find these kinds of phenomenon’s
- (2) Innovate and coin words for referring to new objects, ideas, events
o Ex// iPhone, iPad, iMac = Apple created the ‘i’
Could stand for so many things > “Delicate”
o Ex// IBM = I is industrial
o Look at meme culture at end of course (he wrote a book on murderers and memes)
o Language is always changing
o “Singularity = Ray K in 2045, believes machines will be smarter than us
Neocortex can maybe be reproduced but area of innovation and creativity cannot
- (3) Languages have set of rules, known as grammar, for putting words together to form larger
units of meaning
o a word with no speech= culture and civilization would regress, we evolve with language
o He studied language/slang in 1989, heard of dorks nerds and geeks = after getting
definitions he could place people into those categories
- (4) Language makes purposeful social interaction possible
o Phatic talk = language with no real purpose
Ex// “It was nice to meet you” was it really nice?
May ask “how are you doing” but it is out of protocol not interest
Vs. Doctor = you would be honest
Some words in different context changes meaning
- (5) Languages are highly variable across time and space
o Imagine everyone had the same accent, wouldn't know where they're from
o Rene Descartes wanted to create on universal language so there would be no
misunderstanding except there will be
Ex// Smiley = even though its created to mean happy the context can change it
o Different Dialects!
Changes in choice of words, phrasing and pronunciation
Britain vs. Canadian
- DOUBLE ARTICULATION: with a small set of sounds one can make words, sentences and texts
ad infinitum
o Acquiring language
People just spoke = raises questions of civility
Brain programmed to understand - innatist hypothesis
Plato believes this as does Chomsky
There is no genetic existing malformation, NO LANGUAGE GENE
Organize info and data before puberty
Critical period for language
Brain will repair itself before puberty but not after
Acquiring language is natural
BILINGUAL: one language for expression, one for explanation
Emotional component: no such thing as balance between two languages
(at least not perfectly)
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version