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Shawn Lehman

4/7/2013 10:54:00 AM Anthropology: The study of human species and its immediate ancestors  Anthropology is a holistic science – holism refers to the study of human conditions as a whole , including the past, present and future; biology, society, culture and language Society: Organized life in groups Culture: Traditions and customs that are transmitted through learning and that form and guide the beliefs and behaviours of those who are exposed to them Adaptation: Refers to the processes that are involved in coping with environmental stresses, such as those posed by climate, terrains, topography , landforms In regards to living on high altitudes and the changes the body requires in its process of adaptation is 3 main things: genetic adaptation (larger chests and lungs to survive on the high altitude), long term physiological adaptation (meaning that those who live on high altitudes can carry a lifestyle easier because their bodies have grown and developed as a result of the environment) and short term physiological adaptation (is that those who arrive on high altitudes experience a difference in their conditions such as heavier breathing and heart rates) General Anthropology: The academic discipline of anthropology that involves four sub disciplines: biological, socio-cultural, linguistic and archaeological Bio-Cultural: Refers to the inclusion and combination of both biological and cultural factors in approaching or solving a problem Cultural Anthropology: The study of human society and culture, that explains, analyzed, interprets and describes social and cultural, similarities and differences Ethnography: Provides an account of a particular community, society or culture  According to Franz Boas contact between neighboring tribes has always existed and has extended over enormous areas – he states that human populations construct their cultures in interaction with one another and not in isolation Ethnology: Examines, interprets, analyzes and compares the results of ethnography – the data gathered in different societies Human evolution as revealed by the fossil record Human genetics Human growth and development Human biological plasticity The biology, evolution, behaviour and social life of monkeys, apes and non human primates The phoneme p has two allophones – one that is p(h) which is aspirated and another which is p(=) and it is not aspirated For example pat, repeat = ph But tap, spin = p= Globalization: Encompasses a series of processes that work transnationally and promote change in a world where people and nations are highly interlinked and mutually dependent Acculturation: A second mechanism of cultural exchange is when culture is passed on through direct firsthand contact between two social groups – ex. Pidgin Independent Inventions: When humans innovate, find solutions to problems Doing Anthropology: Ethnographic Techniques Direct firsthand observation of behaviour – participant observation Genealogical record Interviews with community Analysis of behaviour within the community beliefs, attitudes perceptions and so on Different ways of communication with those in the community – chit chat so on Team work Longitudinal study Expertise helping with the process of finding out about a community, society and so on Multi-sited research – analyzing the multiple areas in which people participate in Problem oriented research Note that survey research involves sampling all those who are involved in the community – you can take a sample of the population, meaning randomly selecting a portion of the population or you can take a total sample of the community by interviewing each household and doing in-depth studying by asking them questions and writing down the answers Genealogical Record: Is a well-established ethnographic technique in which ethnographers seek the kinship, ancestry/ descendent and marriage of all the people that are associated with that kin Every community or society has those certain individuals who experience talent, by accident by training and so on and therefore offer their expertise within that area and thus are called key informants When we as ethnographers take the life history of an individual we create an environment that is more personal and intimate Also note that ethnographers are interested in the beliefs, perceptions and so on of that given community and want to discover if their observations and outlooks are the same – they use two research strategies one that is called emic (local oriented) and the other one that is called etic (scientist oriented) – Marvin Harris explains that the emic description is offered by that key consultant that was noted earlier and they learn about certain things as they are described by the key consultant or informant – they are based on the cultures theories and answers that they believe are right for certain cases – However, the etic depends on a scientific description – note the theory learned in psychology HOMER – this is important because the ethnographer applies their knowledge as a social scientist in order to discover information about the given community or society – they operate in a way where they need to think objectively (although not entirely possible, they have to maintain some of this perceptive) and rather than listening to the emic story they apply their observation and importance to the results they discover Theory: Bronislaw Malinowski discovered ethnography – he also studied the concept of salvage ethnography in which people needed to study and record cultural diversity that is threatened by Westernization Since the 1970s another ethnographic trend that was popular was that of interpretive ethnography in which the ethnographers needed to describe and interpret that which was meaningful to natives - by finding out the meaningful text that natives read we can decipher that meaning – ethnographers need to think about what interests them, fill in the blanks and then further elaborate their readers on what possesses meaning in that culture Longitudinal Research: Is a long-term study of a particular area within a population, especially on repeated visits  Note that longitudinal research is both multi-sited and multi-timed meaning that it exists and studies those through time and in multiple places Variables: Attributes that vary among a sample or a population Informed Consent: Is the agreement to take part in the research – after you have understood the nature of that research It is important for North American anthropologists that work in another country to ensure that 1) they have involved the host country colleagues in their research 2) they have built a relationship with them 3) they have ensured that they know about the results and publication of the study and 4) they are “giving back” something to the host country colleagues The anthropologist Yehudi Cohen argued that adaptive strategies are similar to that of economic ones – meaning that counties that share similar adaptive strategies – or similar economic strategies end up having similar sociocultural effects Note that there are five adaptive strategies:  Foragers exist in nation states meaning that they do depend on some government assistance – although foraging societies are becoming more sparse we can trace their outlines in Africa 1) the bushmen and 2) the ones in central and eastern Africa  Foraging  Horticulture  Pastoralism  Agriculture  Industrialism Niche = one thing in common marginality Typologies such as Cohen’s adaptive strategy suggest correlation: meaning they obtain associations or covariation between two or more variables Note that individuals who live in foraging societies are band oriented meaning that they live in bands – usually related through kinship and marriage, less than 100 people and help with the process of finding food and surviving Also note that most foraging societies are egalitarian meaning that there is little prestige distinction and the dichotomies that exist between people are based on gender and age According to Cohen he believed that horticulture is intensive but does not use any of the means of production such as capital, land or machinery rather they depend on simple tools to dig and find the food they are seeking Important point: In the village of Kulkuru there were villages of 150 people, yet they had sturdy houses and they were well built and would much rather prefer to walk to the field rather than rebuild – on the other hand the Montana village in Peru did not have very well built and they therefore relocated their homes closer to the field Agriculture: Is assumed to be more intensive than horticulture as it uses the land continuously – it includes domesticated animals, irrigation, terracing and the costs and benefits of agriculture Pastoralists: Peoples who’s domesticated animals usually are cattle, camel, sheep, goat, yak and reindeer Two patterns of movement occur with pastoralism: nomadism and transhumance With pastoralism nomadism the whole group, men, women, children move with the herd in order to provide different pastures per season – this is a prime example in the Middle East and Northern Africa Transhumance on the other hand is when part of the group moves with the herds while the rest of the people stay at home and pick up some horticulture – this is common in Europe and Africa An economy is the production, distribution and consumption of resources – the study of this system is called economics The mode of production is the way that energy is wrested from nature meaning the organization, skills and so on that are taken this also include the social relations between boss and worker in which the workers labour is paid for through the value of money Means of production: Are the tools that are used such as land (territory), technology and labour Labour tools and specialization: Craft specialization is not exerted from nature but from political/ social relations – it becomes a specialization when countries compete with one another to form this type of material A Case of Industrial Alienation: Note that women in Malay were being taken advantage of in the factories by being treated like a commodity – thus they decided to rebel by being possessed – many believe that this possession illustrated the harmful effects of industrialization – Ong believes that this spirit possession did not help at all it merely acted as a tool that would keep them in their subordinate position – he believed that unionizations would help much more Systems of human behaviour and their organization: note that this is to describe how societies decide to produce, distribute and consume Individual behaviour: is in regards to how people in a particular society decide to consume, distribute and produce Two Different Types of Funds: Subsistence Fund: Is where an individual needs to survive through eating and so on – they burn off calories that are necessary to survive and through work receive those calories back Replacement Fund: Is where an individual needs to replace that of which is broken but is necessary and used many times – shelter and clothing Peasants who are small scale agriculturalists and live in non-industrial societies need to form a rent fund meaning that they need to work to survive, sell what they worked off yet also feed themselves – peasants have two things in common They live in state organized societies Yet they also use tools and modern technologies in order to carry on with their intensive agriculture The economist Karl Polyani identified 3 principles that guide exchanges: the market principle, redistribution and reciprocity – these are apparent in all societies but they are different transactions – also note that the exchanges is one that allocate the means of production The Market Principle: Is the way in which land, technology, labour and so on is used in capitalist societies in order to produce products and further distribute them by money, with an eye for profit and value, according to the law of supply and demand Redistribution: Operates when good or services or their equivalents move from the local level to the center Reciprocity: Exchange by social equals who are related by kinship, marriage or a close social tie Negative reciprocity, social distance is the greatest and is most calculated – this means that from generalized to negative is called the reciprocity continuum With generalized reciprocity someone gives something to someone but expects nothing immediate in return Balanced Reciprocity: Is when social exchange exists among those who are more distantly related to each other than from the same band or household Negative Reciprocity: Mainly dealing with people on the fringes or outside of their social group/ systems One of the most famous events of reciprocity is the potlatch in the North Pacific Coast of North America in which people in the tribes such as the chiefs and big men give things yet either expect nothing in return or some kind of exchange such as prestige and excellent reputation Suttles and Vayda did not see the potlatch as wastefulness but rather saw it as cultural adaptive strategy that proved to be successful when a tribe or culture was experiencing abundance or shortage Power is the ability to exercise one’s will over another Authority is the formally social approved use of this power Tribes have economies that are based on non-intensive food production (horticulture and pastoralism) Chiefdom is sociopolitical organization that is in association with the nation and state – chiefdom, social relations were based on age, gender, descent, marriage, generation and so on – just like that of bands and tribes However, although chiefdoms were kinship based they still had unequal/ differential access to some resources, such as power, prestige, wealth and permanent political structure The state is a sociopolitical organization that is based on formal government structure and socioeconomic stratification Socio-Political Typology: Based on the scale and complexity of social organization and the effectiveness of political regulation, includes tribes, bands, chiefdoms and states Edwin Wilmsen argues that the San were pushed into foraging though poverty and oppression – however, their lifestyle started to change a bit as they were under European political and economic system that further pushed the San to develop food for them – and therefore their way of life became more intensive as they picked up the process of horticulture and domesticated animals not for themselves but for the value of labour – therefore, they did not forager individually anymore Susan Kent argued that there is a tendency to view foragers as all the same, a product of the Stone Age – however it is important and more accurately to view them as the product of colonialism, states and world events Kent stressed the diversity of the San through time and space – two major lifestyles sedentary and nomadism – however, now they are increasingly sedentary then they were in past years – however, it is important to understand that some groups of the San were sedentary all along The Aboriginal Inuit provide a good example of settling disputes – conflict resolution here you see the importance of norms – which are guidelines or cultural standards that illustrate appropriate and inappropriate behaviour in a given society – while norms and rules are a cultural university – states have formal laws that are enforced by a government system Foragers lacked formal law meaning a legal code with trial and enforcement – they rather had norms – this did not mean that it was total anarchy E.A Hoebel – 20,000 village of Inuit he saw that although they did not have laws they had norms to guide their behaviour and they had personal relationships that were associated through kinship, marriage and family, bands No government could stop a blood feud though Link foragers – horticulturalists tend to be egalitarian – however some have marked gender stratification rather than social or economic in which resources, power and prestige are distributed unequally between men and women Traditionally among the Yanomi there was a village head however his power would be increasingly limited – he could not boss around people or command orders – rather he was supposed to set an example if he wanted something to be cleaned up he would take the broom and initiative and complete it first Napolean Chagnon explains the Kaobawu who was a very good village head – he used diplomacy to not offend opposing villages – yet he also showed strength in battle – he was loved by all for his personality – yet also note that when a village head is not admired or favored citizens or members of the village relocate to another this is called village fissioning The big men was always male and was more elaborate than the village head this is because the village head was only responsible for one village while the big men exerts power and influence over several villages – also note that Pipisil an anthropologist studied Kapauka in which this big men had to organize the intensive agriculture that took place in this community – digging and so on – therefore political regulation and collective cultivation though complex were important to his society/ community Status: Any position that describes where someone is positioned in society may be ascribed or achieved Ascribed: Social status, race or gender that people have little or no choice about occupying Achieved: Social status that comes from efforts, talents, actions, achievement, and accomplishment rather than ascription For example, when speaking of the tribe the big men occupies an achieved status because he is generous, physically fit, eloquence and has the desire to help people and he also has a charming and good personality that attracts people to him all things that you are not born with therefore can not be ascribed but rather are worked for Pantribal Society: A non-kin based that exists throughout a tribe, spanning villages  Central Plains of North America and Tropical Africa used horses – for hunting part of the society – pantribal society – also note that many of the older men taught the younger boys about ethnics, politics and regulations and such and integrated them into the tribe – they had a sense of belonging ethnic identity and therefore felt one with the culture and tribe Chiefdoms and state are ideal types – they are viewed as very separate when in reality chiefdoms share some qualities of archaic states making them more alike and on the same continuum – therefore, rather than be position on the opposite end they become increasingly similar and through “continuous change” are considered to be “complex chiefdoms” that are almost at the position of states Office: Permanent political position Not that rather than in state – the status of those who acquired the position of states was ascribed tended to be passed on by seniority – meaning the eldest son held the position Social Strata: Unrelated groups that differ in their access to prestige, wealth and power The influential sociologist Max Weber identified three related dimensions of social strata 1) Wealth, which included all materials, income and land/ property 2) Power which was exerting your influence over another’s will – important for political status and 3) Prestige in which is very important in the social dimension – great respect for deeds, actions and having an exemplary reputation and so on Subordinate: The lower, underprivileged group in a stratified system Superordinate: The upper or privileged group in a stratified system States tend to be large and populous, yet all states tend to have similar status, systems and subsystems:  Population control: boundaries census so on  Enforcement: military and police  Judiciary: Laws and court systems  Fiscal policy – taxation: In which the political leaders benefit to apparently give the host country back some resources – even in chiefdoms this is apparent as there are redistribution policies in which guides certain items, and what actually goes out does not all come back to the people Social Control: Those fields of the social system, beliefs, practices and institutions that are most actively involved in setting the norms and regulations of any conflict  The concept of social control is broader that just political – it includes the norms as well Antonio Gramsci: He made up the concept of hegemony in which the subordinates comply with the domination of those above them as they compare it to their own rules and values and see that domination as natural Pierre Bourdieu also offers a similar viewpoint as he says that social order tries to make its own arbitrariness, meaning that the rules, regulations, domination seem natural and are in everyone’s interest – often promises that through this compliance things will get better in time Bourdieu and Foucalt agree that it is much easier to implement social control in people’s minds rather than their physical bodies because through the mind you can guide their activities, actions, beliefs and contacts Hegemony: The internalization of a dominant ideology, in which the powerful elite curb resistance and ensure complete domination – they do this through promising an upward mobility to the youth and see how they can achieve the same thing as their elders do when they dominate their children – curbing resistance is to separate or isolate people such as that which is done in prisons VERY IMPORTANT CONCEPT DISCUSSED BY JAMES SCOTT Public transcript in which the worker (subordinate) and the boss (superordinate) maintain a respectable relationship – social relations Hidden transcript is the real feelings of the power difference when the superordinate is no longer present in the environment It is as if when the superordinate is present the subordinate shows humility and defer rather than when they are actually speaking they must maintain etiquette and analyze the power relation between the oppressed and the privileged  Example of power relations – JAMES SCOTT – “Weapons of the weak” in Malay where individuals were forced to produce a certain amount of rice for the government – the government promised that it would come back to the people through the form of charity but it never did – note that they started to rebel but not through rioting or protests but through their actions – they sent back the rice with either water or mud in it to make it appear as if it is heavier and they lied about how much they harvested in the end it cost the government more than it cost the people – because of this resistance 15% of what was actually due was paid for Margaret Mead and Ruth Benedict regarded shame as an external force and guilt as an internal one and said that shame was a more powerful indicator of bad behaviour that is felt by an individual Kotak – Makua villages of Mozambique this man slept with his step daughter and fathered her child – word spread across the village and sooner than later women started chanting and singing it in their daily songs with direct reference to the him – he heard it one day and out of so much shame he hung himself from a tree In 1914, the British had implemented a policy of indirect rule and appointed Nigerian men as their agents – warrant chiefs they used force and disciplined those who criticized them they then imposed a tax on the Igbo women however note that these women were mainly responsible for food production and this would put them out of business- although we have learnt that power and authority are the key indicators of curbing resistance and getting your needs done and heard the Igbo women prove otherwise by using their chanting, dancing and in your face behaviour to get what they want demonstrating that with their will they gained greater power within that structure Edmund Leach says that marriage tends to allocate certain things for all The biological mother and father of children Monopoly of sexuality Sharing of property Joint property fund Relationship of affinity between spouses and their relatives Rights to the labor of either spouse Sanday said that those who have a more equal home and relationship with their spouses tend to be more happier – this is in regards to the if women do more work or less work than the man Gender status is more equal when the relationships inside the domestic sector and public sector are more egalitarian meaning that if they are not equal and strong separation among the genders between the home and the outside sector this is what is called a domestic public dichotomy IMPORTANT NOTE: That Peggy Sanday explain that the power that is associated within a patriarchy is not a mirror image of what is associated within a matriarchy – those within a patriarchy obtain a superior power that is not matched appropriately with that of the disproportionate power within a matriarchy Patriarchy: Describes a political system in which women have inferior political and social status, and have little access to even basic human rights Religion: Beliefs and rituals that are concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces For Emile Durkheim the founder of the anthropology of religion: he stresses two concepts the sacred and the profane, which was the ordinary and the mundane: he stressed every society had it sacred but that the domain was socially constructed and differed from society to society Communitas: Intense community spirit, feelings of togetherness, equality and social solidarity; also a feeling of liminality together Animism: Belief in souls or doubles Animism resides in many societies where they believe that the supernatural force – or powers – believe that under conditions can be controlled – For example in Melanesia they believe in mana which resides in plants, animals, objects and people Polytheism: Belief in several deities who control aspects of nature Monotheism: Belief in an external, omnipresent, omnipotent and omniscient supreme being Taboo: Prohibition by supernatural sanctions One function of religion is to explain – Horton and Lambek say that there are certain human experiences, thoughts, common conditions and situations that call out for an explanation Magic is supernatural technique to achieve a certain aim – imitative magic is a form of magic in which the person who wants to inflict harm on another can do so by implementing the harm on a doll or such imitating the event According to Malinowksi those who experience uncertainty also turn to magic such as that of the Trombrianders where the activity of fishing has much uncertainty such as the weather and the conditions that could impair those found on the boat – therefore magic is the alternative Magic, which includes beliefs and rituals can create anxiety, fear and danger – however when the ritual is completed there is usually a sense of solidarity within that participation Rites of passage can be individual or collective Rites of passages contain 3 stages: separation, liminality and incorporation – separation is when one leaves the community – incorporation is when they rejoin society with their new status and liminality which is the second stage is when individuals are caught in a limbo or “time out” where they neither enter or join the next status Liminality has certain characteristics – it is different from ordinary distinctions and expectations – a time out of time – it is separate from normal life Totemism was a key ingredient to Native Australians – Totemism could be in plant, animals or geographical features Totemic practices continue to separate groups, such as the mascots selected for college sport teams and political teams – which bring forth characteristics attached to such a symbol - produces intensification Leveling Mechanism: Customs and social actions that reduce differences in wealth and bring standouts in line with community norms Robert Bellah view Christianity as the “world’s rejecting religion” – he claims that Christianity rejects the mundane, ordinary life and aspires to grasp the sacred, transcendent life – in which humans can only reach for – salvation with the fusion of the supernatural is the main aspect of most religions Revitalization Movements: Movement that occur in time of change, religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalize a society Cargo Cults: Post colonial, acculturative, religious movement that are common in Melanesia and that try to explain European domination and wealth and try to obtain similar success by magically mimicking the behaviour of the European A huge increase in international trade became apparent in the 15 th century and resulted in the capitalist world economy – which was increasingly interested in sales and exchange, had an eye for maximizing profit and was not concerned with supplying domestic needs Capital: Wealth or resources that are invested in a business, with the intent to use the means of production in order to make a profit The world system theory can be traced back to French social historian Braudel who says that the world is an entire system – but it contains certain subsystems that are part of the whole system – he describe the world system theory as an identifiable social system, in which there are power and wealth differentials and extends beyond individual countries – it is formed by th a set of social and political aspects that existed in the 16 century, when the Old World has much contact with the New World According to Wallerstein countries with the world system are broken into 3 categories: core, periphery and semi-periphery – the core is the strongest, most powerful and economically well off – experiencing high levels of industrialization and is technologically advance – the semi-periphery on the other hand is caught in between the core and the periphery, although it is industrialized, exporting goods and commodities, it continues to lack power and strong economic independence – the periphery is at the lowest end of the spectrum, it does not obtain any power – has a lack of economic dependence, yet however some countries located in the periphery are starting to see some industrialization Industrial Revolution: The historical movement in Europe that occurred in the 1750 of turning traditional societies into modern societies through industrialization of the economy The social theorists Karl Marx and Max Weber wanted to focus their analysis th on the social stratification that occurred in England and the 19 century industrialization that also occurred – Marx saw social/ economic stratification as very sharp and intense – he saw the split between the population – those who were considered bourgeoisie – the bosses, who owned the means of production and were more concerned with making profit – they had the most power then the other people were the proletariat – who did not have much power and were moving from the farms and fields to the mills and factories were their work could be regulated and mechanized – they had to sell their labour to survive, did not own any property or means of production Gerhard Lenksi – believed in a more advanced society that gives increasing opportunities to the people – he believed that this increasing of opportunities would lead to the growth of a middle class through attaching political power to them as well – this means that there would not be a distinction between the owning and working class as strongly as Marx put it but rather society would grow more complex as a middle class emerges Weber believed that Marx’s outlook was far to simple and he said that the three systems that he identified as power, prestige and wealth could be related – however, Weber found importance in the intersectionality of an individual where he saw the importance in religion, nationality, race and ethnicity as key determinants of the position acquired within society as well class conflicts have occurred between nations and nationalism has stopped global class solidarity – particularly of proletarians Colonialism: According to Bodley, perpetual expansion is a distinguishing feature of industrial economic systems – contrasting, bands and tribes were small, subsistence based groups while industrial economies are the complete opposite – large, highly specialized systems were market exchanges occur and are interested in maximizing profit as their primary motive Imperialism: Is extending the rule of a nation or empire over foreign nations and taking and holding foreign colonies Colonialism: The political, social, economic and cultural domination of a territory and its people by foreign power for an extended period of time Post-Colonial: Refers to the interactions between the nation that was taken over control and European usually after the 1800’ – post colonialism may be used to explain a position between imperialism and Eurocentrism Intervention Philosophy: Guiding principle in terms of conquest, colonization, missionization and development, in which is an ideological justification for outsiders to guide the native peoples in a certain direction Neoliberalism: Founded by Adam Smith classic economic liberalism, the belief that governments should not regulate a nations market and should rather depend on the free market, a currently dominant invention philosophy The way that the c is written whether small c or upper case C allows us to distinguish between the concepts of communism – communism with a small c is an economic system in which property is owned by the community and in which people work for the common good – Communism with an uppercase C is a political movement that wanted to overthrow capitalism and was highly prevalent in the Soviet Union All communist systems were either authoritarian (promoting obedience to authority rather than individual freedom) or totalitarian (banning rival parties and requiring total submission of the individual to the state) Today in the Second World researchers refer to this world as socialist rather than communist Genocide refers to a deliberate policy and intention to exterminate a group by warfare or murder Indigenous Peoples: The inhabitants of particular territories, many of who are interrelated and are culturally distinct colonized people; also aspire for autonomy Bronislaw Malinowski believed in practical anthropology – in which is focused on the influence of Westernization on certain nations and territories – he saw nothing wrong with allowing researchers to go in and determine how much land should be kept by the native and how much should be taken by the Europeans – he saw the influence of colonialism because he worked during the time frame of it in England, France and Portugal Applied Anthropology Today: Anthropologists are highly specialized people that can implement certain policies to foreign nations because they are qualified to do so 1) they interpret what is important and how the community perceives a solution 2) they work up a solution that is socially sensitive to their needs and 3) th
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