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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Chazan

David Rindos: Harris Matrix: Represent the network of relationship between depositional units. Neolithic revolution: By the end of pre-pottery Neolithic B, every aspect of life in the Middle East had been transformed as a result of the adoption of a village farming way of life. Shift to agriculture began during the Natufian period with the construction of small settlements. Plant and animal domestication began in the pre-pottery B phase, along with an increase in the size of density of settlements. Pottery was introduced in late Neolithic when there was a decrease in size/density of settlement. Domestication-Brittle/Tough Rachis: decline in the role of hunting for subsistence: evidence of animal domestication includes in the shape of goat horns. Rely on the full range of plants domesticated during early Neolithic. Natufian: 15,000-12,000. Transition to village life. Constructed architecture (STONE building) and increased elaboration of material culture appeared. NO evidence that agriculture had become widespread. Plastered Skulls: buried beneath floors in sites dating to the pre-pottery Neolithic B period. PPNB: Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. 10500-8500 BP. AMS Radiocarbon dating: Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating. More accurate. Make it possible to date very small samples, including plant remains. Teosinte: Wild grass found in the highland of Mexico, wild ancestor of maize. Optimal Foraging Theory: Based on the assumption that the choices people make reflect rational self-interest to maximize efficiency in collecting and processing resource. Explains the 2000-year gap within 100km. Isotope Analysis: relevance to spread of domesticated Maize Nabta Playa. Analysis of bone chemistry can determine the role of maize in diet. Pastoral societies: Mobile societies with an economy based on herds of domesticated animals. Thousands of years before agricultural village Region Plants Animals Mesoamerica Maize, squash, beans N/A Middle East Europ Eastern North America North Aferica New Guinea The Andes Cotton, Cultivated Gourd,bean China Rice, millet Middle East Site Data Location Significance Ohalo II 19400BP Northern Isreal Remains of brush
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