Harris Matrix: Represent the network of relationship between depositional units.
Neolithic revolution: By the end of pre-pottery Neolithic B, every aspect of life in the Middle
East had been transformed as a result of the adoption of a village farming way of life. Shift to
agriculture began during the Natufian period with the construction of small settlements. Plant
and animal domestication began in the pre-pottery B phase, along with an increase in the size
of density of settlements. Pottery was introduced in late Neolithic when there was a decrease
in size/density of settlement.
Domestication-Brittle/Tough Rachis: decline in the role of hunting for subsistence: evidence of
animal domestication includes in the shape of goat horns. Rely on the full range of plants
domesticated during early Neolithic.
Natufian: 15,000-12,000. Transition to village life. Constructed architecture (STONE building)
and increased elaboration of material culture appeared. NO evidence that agriculture had
Plastered Skulls: buried beneath floors in sites dating to the pre-pottery Neolithic B period.
PPNB: Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. 10500-8500 BP.
AMS Radiocarbon dating: Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating. More accurate.
Make it possible to date very small samples, including plant remains.
Teosinte: Wild grass found in the highland of Mexico, wild ancestor of maize.
Optimal Foraging Theory: Based on the assumption that the choices people make reflect
rational self-interest to maximize efficiency in collecting and processing resource. Explains the
2000-year gap within 100km.
Isotope Analysis: relevance to spread of domesticated Maize Nabta Playa. Analysis of bone
chemistry can determine the role of maize in diet.
Pastoral societies: Mobile societies with an economy based on herds of domesticated animals.
Thousands of years before agricultural village Region Plants Animals
Mesoamerica Maize, squash, beans N/A
Eastern North America
The Andes Cotton, Cultivated Gourd，bean
China Rice, millet
Site Data Location Significance
Ohalo II 19400BP Northern Isreal Remains of brush