Midterm Study Guide Answers.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Diane Riskedahl

ANT 204 H1FMidterm Study GuidePoint breakdown listed is tentative and based on a 100pt totalDefine a number of terms in relation to our readings and provide examples from our readings On the exam I will give you approximately 68 terms and you will be asked to define and give examples for 57 of them approx 20pts For example culture shock methodology cultural relativism ethnocentrism ethnography liminality Shii Islam discursive piety contested space cultural icon Definitions Comparative anthropology comparison approach of raceThe comparative approach helps us understand a cultural group by understanding not only what it is but what it is not Primatology subfield on anthropology is a perfect example of this By carefully studying our closest primate ancestors we can learn what behaviors and biology we share what is fundamentally primate and where those similarities end what is fundamentally human Culture shock Anxiety created when thrown into a new and unfamiliar environmentCan limit ones ability to learn new culturally defined rules for behavior and interpretationMethodologyMethod of research Cultural relativismBoazlooks at specific practice or belief of another culture and understand their framework Can lead to moral relativism o Agreeing that its ok if you try to understand their view of life o Leads to relative fallacyall culture should have own set of human rights instead of universalFormulated largely by Franz Boas in the 1880s with an interest in countering racist formulations of evolutionary theoryCultural relativismall cultures are equal and comparable there are no inferior or superior cultures and therefore it is impossible to rank cultures in an evolutionary schemeEthnocentrismYour way of living is the ideal way of living and others who do not live like you have not reached it yet because they may not have the right material education etc The belief and feeling that ones own culture is bestBased on the tendency to judge other peoples beliefs and behavior using the values of ones own cultureEthnographyEnd product of field workThe written description of social organization activities symbolic and material resources and interpretive practices that characterize a particular group of peopleDescribing o What people do cultural behavior o What people know cultural knowledge both explicit an tactic o The things people make and use Cultural artifacts o Not simply description but analysis o Ortner Cultural analysis serves us best when the focus is on practiceLiminailityTranslational space Between and betwixt Shii IslamA group of peopleDiscursive pietyInformal daily conversationMore formal search for authoritative perspectives by means of letters internet and call in queries to TV or radio Imams or marjii such as FadlallahThrough both the emphasis is on seeking answers to questions pursuing religious knowledgeContested spaceConflict of interest on a particular spaceUsually of different useWe define contested spaces as geographic locations where conflicts in the form of opposition confrontation subversion andor resistance engage actors whose social positions are defined by differential control of resources and access to power While these conflicts principally center on the meanings invested in sites or derive from their interpretation they reveal broader social struggles over deeply held collective myths In this way contested spaces give material expression to and act as loci for creating and promulgating countering and negotiation dominant cultural themes that find expression in myriad aspects of social life Spaces are contested precisely because they concretize the fundamental and recurring but otherwise unexamined ideological and social frameworks that structure practice Low and Ziga 2003 19Cultural IconCan be a person place or performance Epitomize personal values or attributes that are culturally significant Delaney 343Represent different things to not only people living in different societies but also to people differently located within the same society Delaney 346Basic Religious Terms in IslamIslamo submission to godAllaho godmonotheisticOrthopraxo A religion in which ones belief is constituted through practices praxis o Both Islam and Judaism with Christianity considered orthodoxHoly BooksOuran was passed down to Muhammad though divine revelation o This builds into the culture a strong respect for the written word and a notion of pure formHadith written reports of the sayings and deeds of the prophetSalatPrayerGeneral features o 5 prayer times each day o Raqah bowing and prostrationrepresents submission to gob o Ablutions symbolic purification by washing hands feet etc with waterZakatalms givingoriginally a freewill donation now largely compulsory depending on the countrygeneral rate 2of income annuallygiven only to needy Muslims or for religious purposes etc
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