Asexuality -Having no evident sex or sex organs
Sexual reproduction -Reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a
Red Queen -the hypothesis that organisms are constantly struggling to keep
hypothesis up with one another in an evolutionary race between predator
and prey species
“Cost of males”
Müllerʼs ratchet -The process by which the genomes of an asexual population
accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner.
Sex determination -The genetic or environmental process by which the sex of an
individual is established.
Sex ratio theory -States that for any species the sex ratio should relate to the ratio
of parental investment in each of the two sexes
Reproductive -Anything and everything an individual does that functions to
strategy allow it to reproduce. This includes its production of gametes,
how and when and with whom it mates, parental care and so on.
Parental investment -Behavior of a parent that increases the probability of offspring
survival at the cost of the parent's ability to produce more
Maternal constraint -Limitation on fetal growth defined by the capacity of the utero-
placental unity to supply nutrients to the fetus
Maternal health -Endorphins and oxytocin are released – good feeling, speed up
benefits of recovery from labor
breastfeeding -Reduces postpartum hemorrhage
-Return to pre-pregnant weight
-Lower risk of heart attack, osteoporosis, diabetes, and breast
Placenta -Produces hormone similar to growth hormone, the production
of which increases throughout pregnancy, it functions to make
glucose more available to the fetus, and later enhances milk
Medicalization -The defining of a condition as a disease, or a condition in need
of medical surveillance.
Menstruation -Last phase of an ovulatory cycle, and only occurs if conception
has not taken place
Menarche -Signals the onset of ovulation
Ovulation -The release of an ovum from the ovary
Oocytes -A cell in an ovary that may undergo meiotic division to form an
Ovarian cycle -The cyclic recurrence of the follicular phase, ovulation, and the
luteal phase in the mammalian ovary, regulated by hormones.
Sex hormones -A hormone, such as estrogen or testosterone, affecting sexual
development or reproduction
Age-specific fertility Fecundity -The ability to sustain a pregnancy.
Fecundability -The ability to conceive.
Fertility -The production of a live birth.
Proximate -Age at menarche; age at menopause; frequency of intercourse,
determinants of ovarian cycle length; duration of Lactational infecundability;
fertility probability of pathological sterility; frequency of spontaneous
abortion; length of gestation; use of contraception
Infertility -The absence of conception after 24 months of regular,
New reproductive -Such as in vitro fertilization
Sexual dysfunction -refers to a difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple
during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including desire,
arousal or orgasm.
Geophagy The practice of eating earth, esp. chalk or clay in famine-stricken
Food aversions and
Gestational diabetes -A form of diabetes (insulin resistance) that occurs during
pregnancy and that usually resolves after birth
Pregnancy induced -When blood pressure rises above 140/90 during pregnancy
Synergism -The working together of two things to produce an effect greater
than the sum of their individual effects
Osteoporosis -A thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density, usually
associated with aging
Gerontology -The scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and the
particular problems of old people
Presbyopia -An eye condition that makes focusing on near objects more
Dementia -Characterized by memory impairment, loss of executive
function, and speech difficulties.
Alzheimer disease -A form of senile dementia. Characterized by the accumulation
of localized areas of neuronal cell death or damage
Menopause -Reflects the end of the capacity to ovulate and is accompanied
by a decline in oestrogen and progesterone secretion.
-Not having menstruated for a year
Antagonistic -Genes that benefit an individual early in life and contribute to
pleiotropy fitness but that may have longer term deleterious effects are not
selected against and may contribute to the increased