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ANT208 Test 3 Defintions.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Dan Sellen

Term Definition Asexuality -Having no evident sex or sex organs Sexual reproduction -Reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete Red Queen -the hypothesis that organisms are constantly struggling to keep hypothesis up with one another in an evolutionary race between predator and prey species “Cost of males” Müllerʼs ratchet -The process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner. Sex determination -The genetic or environmental process by which the sex of an individual is established. Sex ratio theory -States that for any species the sex ratio should relate to the ratio of parental investment in each of the two sexes Reproductive -Anything and everything an individual does that functions to strategy allow it to reproduce. This includes its production of gametes, how and when and with whom it mates, parental care and so on. Parental investment -Behavior of a parent that increases the probability of offspring survival at the cost of the parent's ability to produce more offspring. Maternal constraint -Limitation on fetal growth defined by the capacity of the utero- placental unity to supply nutrients to the fetus Maternal health -Endorphins and oxytocin are released – good feeling, speed up benefits of recovery from labor breastfeeding -Reduces postpartum hemorrhage -Return to pre-pregnant weight -Lower risk of heart attack, osteoporosis, diabetes, and breast cancer Placenta -Produces hormone similar to growth hormone, the production of which increases throughout pregnancy, it functions to make glucose more available to the fetus, and later enhances milk production Reproductive health Medicalization -The defining of a condition as a disease, or a condition in need of medical surveillance. Menstruation -Last phase of an ovulatory cycle, and only occurs if conception has not taken place Menarche -Signals the onset of ovulation Ovulation -The release of an ovum from the ovary Oocytes -A cell in an ovary that may undergo meiotic division to form an ovum Ovarian cycle -The cyclic recurrence of the follicular phase, ovulation, and the luteal phase in the mammalian ovary, regulated by hormones. Sex hormones -A hormone, such as estrogen or testosterone, affecting sexual development or reproduction Age-specific fertility Fecundity -The ability to sustain a pregnancy. Fecundability -The ability to conceive. Fertility -The production of a live birth. Proximate -Age at menarche; age at menopause; frequency of intercourse, determinants of ovarian cycle length; duration of Lactational infecundability; fertility probability of pathological sterility; frequency of spontaneous abortion; length of gestation; use of contraception Infertility -The absence of conception after 24 months of regular, unprotected intercourse. New reproductive -Such as in vitro fertilization technologies, NRT Sexual dysfunction -refers to a difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including desire, arousal or orgasm. Geophagy The practice of eating earth, esp. chalk or clay in famine-stricken regions Food aversions and cravings Gestational diabetes -A form of diabetes (insulin resistance) that occurs during pregnancy and that usually resolves after birth Pregnancy induced -When blood pressure rises above 140/90 during pregnancy hypertension (PIH) Synergism -The working together of two things to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects Osteoporosis -A thinning of bone tissue and loss of bone density, usually associated with aging Gerontology -The scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and the particular problems of old people Presbyopia -An eye condition that makes focusing on near objects more difficult Dementia -Characterized by memory impairment, loss of executive function, and speech difficulties. Alzheimer disease -A form of senile dementia. Characterized by the accumulation of localized areas of neuronal cell death or damage Menopause -Reflects the end of the capacity to ovulate and is accompanied by a decline in oestrogen and progesterone secretion. -Not having menstruated for a year Antagonistic -Genes that benefit an individual early in life and contribute to pleiotropy fitness but that may have longer term deleterious effects are not selected against and may contribute to the increased
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