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B Ewald

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Chronological Outline and Some Key Dates • 753 BC: legendary foundation of Rome • 753-509 BC: Regal Period • 509-31 OR 27 BC: Republican Period • 27 BC:Augustus becomes the first Roman Emperor • 27 BC - 476AD: Imperial Period • 64AD: great fire under Nero • 271-275AD: building of theAurelian Walls • 325AD: the first Christian emperor Constantine transfers the capital of the Roman Empire to the East by founding Constantinople. This weakens the importance of Rome. Myths and Legends about the Foundation of Rome • After the destruction of troy in 1190 BC,Aeneas son ofAnchises and Venus arrives in Latium and marries the daughter of king Latinus, Lavinia • Aeneas’son Iulus/Ascanius founds the city ofAlba Longa in Latium. The last king ofAlba Longa,Amulius, steals the throne of Numitor, and forces his daughter, Rhea Silvia, to become a Vestal Virgin • Rhea Silvia is raped by Mars and has twin boys Romulus and Remus. They are exposed and are taken in the care of a she-wolf in the Lupercal • The twins killAmulius and restore Numitor to the throne • Romulus and Remus seek to found a new city, Romulus kills his brother in derision and founds Rome • Rome’s “birthday” sApril 21 753 BC • Romulus reigns as the first of the seven traditional kings of Rome • Under Romulus we have the abduction of the Sabine women • The last Roman king Tarquinius Superbus is chased away by Lucius Iunius Brutus, who is considered to be the father of the Roman republic. • The story ofAlba Longa and its kings evidently helped bridge the chronological gap between the destruction of Troy and the foundation of Rome • The account of the legendary foundation of Rome goes back to the Latin historian Varro Geography and Topography of Rome • Rome is located on the left bank of the lower course of the Tiber river, roughly 20km inland from the coast. The city is situated at a natural Tiber crossing on a very old trade route which st runs North/South and connects to Etruria. This route dates to the early 1 millennium BC. • The city itself lies in the italian coastal plains and occupies a group of low hills.According to the ancient source Varro, these seven hills are the: • Capitol • Key hill in religious matters • Palatine • Site of earliest settlement • Aventine • Caelius • Esquiline • Viminal • Quirinal • But other sources vary on the number of hills, and which hills are included in the count. Varro lists seven in a reflection of his obsession with the number which apparently was magical. In reality it would be difficult to pin-point how many hills Rome really has. • These hills were much steeper in antiquity than now; lower areas were often inundated. It is likely that instead of a wall, 6 century Rome had a number of fortified hills. • Capitoline Hill • Smallest and steepest of the hills • Capo is latin for head. Supposedly an Etruscan king decided to build a temple to jupiter there and allegedly found a human head upon excavation. This was an omen that Rome would some day be the head of the world • All that has been found now of this temple is a huge podium and remains of a very large foundation • This hill was the destination for triumphal processions • Additionally, on the cliff called Mona Tarpeius condemned criminals met their end • Palatine Hill • This hill is associated with the earliest history. Part of the reason is that it is rich in minerals and water and is situated on a natural tiber crossing (very important trade route) and could be fortified easily • It was connected with the Esquiline hill • Mythically founded by Romulus, and throughout historical times the hut of Romulus was shown on the hill. The IronAge hut reminded the Romans of their simple origins, and allowed them to reflect on the morals of their ancestors. Thus it stood as a sort of “moral museum” and allowed Romans to be reminded of their mythical past. • IronAge urns in the shape of houses aided the reconstruction of the ‘hut of Romulus’ • • The hut of Romulus (Casa Romuli) was identified at the south western slope of the Palatine hill and was maintained as an ‘open air museum’as late as the 4 centuryAD • The imperial palaces were located on this hill, from which one could watch the chariot races across at the Circus Maximus! • Augustus built his house near the hut. His palace was associated with the temple ofApollo • In between the Capitol and the Palatine near the crossing were the: • Forum Holiturium: a vegetable market; and the • Forum Boarium: a cattle martket Influences in Rome th • Rome in the 7 century BC was at the intersection of two spheres of influence: • Etruscans in the north and the Greeks in the south • Etruscan influence • Because of Rome’s strategic location at a natural Tiber crossing on a trade route, it must have first been under Etruscan rule • Three etruscan kings • Etymology of the name Roma perhaps from the name of an aristocratic Etruscan family, Rumle • Institutions and religious practices such as haruspices and augurium are Etruscan • Insignia of the ruler and symbols of rank and power such as the dress and attributes of the triumphator indicate etruscan influence • As does the alphabet, temple building and architecture and works of engineering like the draining of the Forum Romanum through the Cloaca Maxima (the area of the forum, and a prerequisite for turning the Forum into a meeting place • Increasing trade relations resulting in increasing social differentiation during this period • Greek influence • There was an increasing Greek influence on Rome • Greek cities looked nicer than Roman cities • Conservatives were deeply concerned and suspicious of things coming from the east; wanted to keep things “roman” • Basilica is a large roofed space that serves two main purposes: • Commercial: trade, financial tribal action, etc.Amonumentalizaiton of things already occuring; and judicial. This idea to monumentalize may have come from Greece • Astyle built in the time when Romans were reaching out and conquering the eastern Mediterranean • Often they had 3 naves, but could be as many as 5 to provide light • The entrance is on the long sides, and they are developed from Greek longhalls • The Stoa Basileios = the Kingly Hall • This building type is later appropriated by the christian churches because it does not have pagan connotations • Houses the office of Censor which is in charge of the estimation of taxation, watched over the manners of the Romans was was in charge of public building activities, usign tax money and private funds • Often individuals from the same family remain in charge of the building, maintain it and oversee restoration to maintain their influence • Spoils of war were attached to the exterior of the basilica to praise military success which promotes individuals, or families th th Key Monument in Early Rome (7 -5 centuries BC) • Capitoline Hill: • Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus evidences the Italic design • Main characteristic are the use of local materials, the high podium, the length/width relation of 6:5, the orientation towards the front (including the frontal staircase) • Palatine Hill: • IronAge Huts • Forum Romanum: • Comitium: meeting place • Lapis Niger: ‘black stone’a sacred site th • Probably 6 century BC • Conceals a number of mysterious monuments beneath it • One of the inscriptions, on monument H, is possibly the oldest latin inscription on stone that is preserved • Regia: administrative building and seat of the king • Rome’s first administrative and religious building C.600 BC • • The visible remains date to the foundations of a rebuilding after 39 BC • Temple of Saturn • Temple of the Dioscuri • Temple of Concordia • Forum Boarium and Forum Holitorium: • Archaic temple for ‘Mater Matuta’possibly a fertility goddess in the Forum Boarium, 6 th century th • Sculptures from the pediment of the early 6 century BC temple possibly to Mater Matuta show two felines, a common motif in early Greek and Etruscan temple decoration • Archaic terracotta sculptures and a frieze from the temple in theArea Sacra di S. Omobono, buried after the destruction of the temple show a procession of chariots • Heracles withAthena frieze is perhaps meant to depict Heracles’introduction to Olympus after his death. • This sculpture was probably an acroterion (i.e, it decorated the pediment). • The frieze and sculpture belong to a mid 6 century BC building phase Urbanism • There was considerable urban sprawl, and it is difficult to say where the city ended and the countryside began One of the characteristics of early urbanism is division of space, often by walls These walls do • not necessarily correspond to the size of the city. • There were two walls, erected in different times: • Servian Wall was built in Republic times. It was so-named because people believed it had been built by the legendary king Servius Tullius.Archaeological evidence, however, secures dates to the 4 century B.C. because it uses materials that were only available in Rome from that time onwards (i.e., said materials come form a conquered city). Additionally, the wall encompasses more territory than pre-4 century BC Rome spanned • The wall was 11 km long, 4m wide, and 10m high. These walls were built form “Grotta oscura tufa,” a porous volcanic stone from Veii, a city north of Rome which came under Roman control in the early 4 century B.C. • The interior of the wall had a large ramp of earth called the agger which allowed easy access from the inside. Because of this the wall was also known as “Agger Servianus.” Adeep ditch called fossa was on the other side of the wall, suited an opposite purpose - making it more difficult to climb • Later on theAgger was used for growing wine, until a train was built through it in the modern period • This wall includes all seven hills listed by Varro • It is unclear what its position was on the Tiber, and it may simple have used the river as a natural fortification • This wall was built because Rome had been sacked by the Gauls earlier that century - before which Rome had done without a wall Afterwards it was never really needed as the city grew beyond its walls and Rome • became a superpower (and was able to defend itself without fortifications such as walls, presumably) • Aurelianic Wall was built in the 3 centuryAD. It was begun under the emperorAurelian th th (270-275AD) and reinforced or made higher several times during the 4 , and 5 centuries AD • The wall is built in “opus latericium.” It had 383 towers and a number of gates. The PortaAppia (now Porta San Sebastiano) is the largest and best preserved gate.For the square bastions building material was taken from the monumental tombs nearby • All people of Rome had to help in its building. It incorporates older walls and monuments whenever possible, evidencing the haste in which it was erected. • The Porta Ostiensis (now Porta San Paolo) shows the same late antique alterations as the PortaAppia. The “Pyramid of Cestius” was incorporated in the wall - a clear indication of the haste with which the wall was built and a means of saving time and money It was built because of Barbarian threats. The need of walls to defend the city is • evidence of Rome’s decline. • Rome also had a third boundary, besides the two erected walls: the pomerium • The pomerium is a ritual boundary. It is only marked at its turning points by stones. • One function of the pomerium was that defined a civil space in which no military activity was allowed • Asecond (disputed) function was that there were no foreign non-roman cults within the pomerium (but this seems to only be applied to Egyptian cults) • The Egyptian cults were located on the Field of Mars, which was excluded from the Pomerium also because of its military connotation and use as a training ground. • The Servian Wall appears to include that which the pomerium does, but the pomerium changed over the course of Rome’s history, and was enlarged and redrawn several times. The extending of the boundary was undertaken because whenever Rome gained new territory abroad (and thus expanding their whole territory) the pomerium was redrawn to mirror the expanding borders • Forum • The forum was the centre for business, religion, and society. Thus the secular and the sacred were often found mixed. It served as a venue for important rituals, and entertainment. • Early IronAge burials (10 -8 centuries BC) are in the ForumArea of the temple of Antonius Pius and Faustina. Both cremation and inhumation were practiced. From the mid th 8 century BC on, only children seem to have been buried in the Forum area • The Forum Romanum (represented in green on map): The forum was made by the etruscans who drained the area between the Capitol and Palatine • Provided a stage for gladiatorial games. The earliest of these games were associated with aristocratic funerals • It was also a site of processions such as the triumph • On this occasion ephemeral architecture was built (scaffolding) to allow people to watch) • In the Imperial Period it was a contact zone for the people and emperor. The forum’s use as a meeting place allowed for Rome to become a city • Speakers platform (Rostra) dates back to the 4 century BC by a consul C. Maenius • An odd type of monument that has to do with the rhetorical culture of Rome • It promoted Maenius and his family, celebrating a naval victory of 338 BC • The platform was decorated with the bronze prows of ships that were cut off from enemy ships as trophies of his victory • Rostra means “ships prow” but became a technical term for all speakers platform • There were a lot of statues set up in the forum, some of which had to be removed because there were too many com mid-3 centuryAD • These statues commemorated important romans, military generals, etc.All those not approved were taken away • Many shops dating from 4 century BC • For changing money Increased the volume of trade • • Contributed to the forum becoming a commercial centre • The tops of these places could be rented out by private individuals • Balconies above the shops are called Maeniana derived from C. Maenius. The are used to watch the triumph, or gladiatorial shows. It was Maenius’idea to build the balconies, and his name continued to be used for “Maeniana” (balcony) • Imperial Fora (represented in blue on map) is located next to the old Forum Romanum. It’s official function was to provide space for administrative and judicial activities but also served educational purposes • The Imperial Fora consisted of a temple and porticos. It was symmetrical and on an axis. The Imperial Fora served imperial self-presentation with temples of patron gods of an • emperor • After Caesar’s Forum of Caesar (Forum Iulium of Caesar), emperors after him continued building various forums in nearby spaces. The imitated the architecture of their predecessors, but often on a larger scale, and with more costly materials. • The Forum of Caesar was completed byAugustus, and consists of two porticoes which frame a square which on one of the small side has a temple (dedicated to the patron goddess of Caesar, Venus) • Augustus’Forum is dedicated to his patron deity, Mars Ultor. It is larger than Caesars, and is framed by two porticoes, but this time there is the addition of hemicircles (hexidrae) which are parallel to each other. • There may have been two pairs of hexidrae, but the whole forum has not been excavated so it remains unknown • The similarity to Caesar is intentional:Augustus wants to harken back to him on purpose to connect • The temple was allegedly vowed by augustus in 42 BC (then octavian) on the even of the Battle of Philipae, in which he defeated the assassins of Caesar. This is why the temple is dedicated to Mars Ultor; he had promised mars the temple if he helped him defeat his enemies • The legionary standards that had been lost by roman legions in the east were regained underAugustus, and this diplomatic success was displayed in that the standards were put up in the forum • This served propogandist purposes • On the other hand, there was space for a number of civic and religious activities • Featured the second largest temple of the time which was richly decorated with white marble from northern italian quarries opened byAugustus • Augustus purchased all the land for his forum, but the forum is irregular at the back, which suggests that some parts coudl not be bought (it was super densely populated area) • There was a firewall made of porous volcanic stone that was meant to protect the forum from fire, and separated it from the hazardously densely packed area behind it • The forum was richly decorated with coloured marbles for columns, pavements and walls • Coloured marble adds value, but also has an ideological function as it reflects on the power of the emperor who commanded the resources brought to rome • The room called the Sala del Colosso houses a colossus, as well as paintings done by some of the most famous greek artists. • This reflected the power and military conquests, and perhaps (the images) praised the achievement of augusts • The statue was of augustus (perhaps erected by a successor) and stood about 12m high. It was an acrolith: used marble for visible parts of flesh which are constructed over wooden scaffolding • Some marble was painted with the design of a curtain to serve as backdrop. • What remains illustrates nicely how ancient marble decoration was painted • The interchanged caryatids and shields might commemorate victory over egypt • The shields feature an egyptian version of Zeus • The Caryatids are exact replicas of two of the Caryatids in the porch of Erectheon on the aropolis • They serve as female cult servants of one of the mythical kings of athens and are a permanent expression of piety • Statues on display in porticoes are of famous romans (summi viri) which consisted of a statue in a cuirass with an inscirption explainign who they were and their main accomplishments; on the other hand they were represntations of direct ancestors, beginning withAeneas all the way to Caesar • This was a carefully thought out scultprual prograph which served to legitimize augustus • Features Romulus as the first triumvirate • The purpose of the forum was: • Practical, in that it provided space for lawsuits which had increased in the imperial period; space for imperial administration (possibly) • Served to enhance the agenda ofAugustus. He tried to increase the importance of his forum by relocating rituals which had previously taken place on the capitoline at the temple of Jupiter to his forum • E.g., the rite of passage in which the youths put on mens toga, which included a sacrifice toAugustus’patron deity mars because, as men, they could now enlist in the military • Forum of Trajan was the latest and the largest. It outdoes all previous ones in its sheer size. Commemorated his scuess over the Dacian in the 1 centuryAD. It was finished in 112AD • The architect,Apollodorus of Greece, had previously designed bridges in war. He copied the forum of agustus, but featured two pairs of hexidrae.Also added a basilic on one end, whichAugustus did not have • He had to remove an entire hill to build it • Trajan, from spain, was the adopted heir of Nerva. He was the first in a series of emperors from outside italy • His market included a hemicircle of storefronts on the reinforced hillside.Above which there were three more levels of shops and halls. Over 150 store fronts • The market was fro the common people; his forum for the aristocracy and the court (common vs formal) • Forum Transitorium was built under Domitian • occupied the space of a road (‘argiletum’) connecting ‘subura’and Forum Romanum; it was the only Imperial Forum open to traffic. Next to the podium of the temple of Minverva, traces of carriages can be seen. • Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Temple of Peace (Templum Pacis) built in 75AD • Built under Vespasian • Separated the Forum ofAugustus, Caesar, and the Via dell’Argileto • Not mentioned to have a civil function, and thus is prevented from being classified as a true forum. Therefore the structure was simply identified as the Temple of Peace (Templum Pacis) until the late Empire. • The shape was different from preceding forums: a large apsidal hall which opened up like an exedra at the bottom of the portico.Arow of column
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