FAH272 20th century and Modernism Summaries

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University of Toronto St. George
Dr.Sharon Vattay

th20 century and Modernismy Adolf Loos 18701933 o Ornament is crime o Believed that ornament was a sign of a primitive culture y Frank Lloyd Wright 18671959 o Environmental factors affected his designs like Fallingwater House o Fallingwater Houses 1935 in Pennsylvania was planted on rocky ledge beside a stream letting reinforced concrete balconies cantilever out over the stream o Guggenheim Museum 1957 in New York has a quarter mile long ramp that spirals around a 6 story openingo Developed the Prairie house because of his search for an American homedesigned houses that sat close to ground and seemed to be tied to landscapeo Usonian housesmaller and fit for American family with middle class budgetsy Peter Behrens 18681940 o German architect o One of pioneers of modern architecture with Le Corbusier Gropius and Mies as they worked for him when they were young o One of the leaders of architectural reform at the turn of the century and was a major designer of factories and office buildings in brick steel and glass o Member of Werkbund German products association o Turbine Factory 1909avoided applied ornament entirely and gave the structural materials direct expression as the steel frame is exposed along the walls and in the front glass curtain wall was one of first architectural attempts to deal with industrial facilities y Futurism and Constructivism o Futurism was in Italy o Constructivism was in Russia o Had influence on development of European modernism y Art Deco o Eclectic and artistic styleo Thrived in France from 1910 on and continued to be popular in America especially for skyscrapers and theatres through 1930s o Influenced all areas of design like graphics ceramics furniture and architecture o Like Art Nouveau Art Deco was a movement in search of newness for a new century o Ornamental style that was modern and celebrated both art and technology o Chrysler Building 1928 in New York by William van Alen had crown like dome of stainless steel and tiered arches o Empire State Building 1928 in New York by Shreve Lamb and Harmon was the tallest structure of this period y International Style o 19201945 in Europe and North Americao Pioneered by Le Corbusiero Spread to Bauhaus where it was most influential combined with rejection of traditional decorative motifs repeated o Emphasis on functionelement in ornamental design and regional characteristics o Characterized by flat roofs smooth and uniform surfaces large windows and projectingcantilevered upper floors o Emphasized horizontality with windows that wrapped around corners o Clerestory windows are popularo Curtainlike walls made of glass are common
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