Heröon, Lefkandi - Toumba (Euboia), Axonometric reconstruction
Date: 950 B.C.E. Period Greek Protogeometric
Foundation was in stone above that was mud brick, which did not survive. Largest to
date structure found. Two burials inside (north and south), pits contained storage jars. North
burial shaft had sacrificed horses in honour of the Lord showed his status. South had ashes of a
man since manly objects were around it (Phoenician scarab and seal jewellery) and next to him
was a woman with ancient gold bustier and with earrings and pendants. Looks like her feet and
hands were bound lead ppl to think she was killed when the man died and placed next to him.
Think this site was used after the death of the lord, covered it and started using it as a burial
ground for local population. Heroon = site for worship of a hero. Almost 55yards long and
Early form of Peristyle. More simplified plan, post holes that run all the way around
create a little colony.
Terracotta Figurine of a Centaur, Lefkandi 10th C BCE (36 cm)
Burial good found in Lefkandi cemetery. Was probably holding something before, eyes
hollowed out probably had precious stone in them. Half beast/animal/horse and half
man/human. Misbehaved a lot terrible creatures. Chiron tutor of Achilles is an example
of a good centaur. Elaborate geometric motifs. Human torso, head and legs are solid and made
by hand while the cylindrical horsey horizontal part of the body is wheelmade. Ears pierced with
holdes, eyes inlaid with bone or shell. Head and body found in separate graves.
Herakles and Centaur Nessos (?)
Bronze Figurine (11cm) c.750 BCE
Centaur looks more like a man although he has an addition in the
back. Heracles was the strongest mortal man who eventually became divine after his death, had
many woman including a wife. When trying to cross a river centaur Nessus carried wife across
tried to rape her Heracles killed him with a Hydra-poisoned arrow. Could be Heracles fighting
monster. Unclear. Narrative for first time. Highly stylized. Dagger stuck in centaur’s side. Small
figurines most likely as dedications. Made through lost-was technique, sculpted in wax, put
mould, add bronze, burn wax.
Ivory Female Figurine from Athens (Dipylon Cemetery) H: 24cm
c. 730 BCE (Late Geometric)
Ivory in Greece suggests oriental sources, as does the nudity, while
emulates the Near Eastern Austere. Signals Divine status wearing decorative geometric polos
hat. Her long legs, triangular torso, sharp features, and hat indicate a geometric Greek sculptor
made it borrowing from abroad and emending to local taste. Found w four similar companions in
a grave in Athens. Hat has meander designs.
1 “Mantiklos Kouros” - from Thebes (700 BCE)
Signals end of geometric period, Male nude figure wearing belt. Has
inscription on back thighs. "Mantiklos offers me as a tithe to Apollo
of the silver bow; do you, Phoibos, give some pleasing favor in
return." Tithe= one tenth of ones income. Mantiklos probably person
who commissioned it in return of some kind of favour from
Apollo. At the time writing was a new skill.
Tripod Cauldrons From Olympia c. 800 BCE
Associated with prizes for athletic contests or as dedications in sanctuaries, most
notably at Olympia. Olympian games presumably continued every four years. Pinthian
every 4 games 2 year after Olympian games. Bronze. Used to cook sacrificial meat. Sacrifice
of animals was for everyone to eat meat and for the gods. Entrails would be burned smoke went
up to Olympus. Meat cooked and distributed to those participating in festival. Surviving
fragments of cauldron leg has decorative relief. Two figures fighting over a cauldron on a
cauldron leg most likely Heracles and Apollo. Bronze Cauldron tripod was centerpiece of Apollo’s
oracle Heracles took it. Zeus intervened and gave it back to Apollo. Rings designed to insert
pole through for carrying
Late Geometric Amphora, from Dipylon cemetery, Athens
c. 750 BCE (1.55m) National Museum, Athens
Narrow neck with belly.
Amphora is a storage jar with cold liquids like oil and wine, associated with
kitchen. On the amphora is a funerary scene were a lady wearing skirt is laid out
on a couch. Geometric design, repetitive, rhythmic. Highly ornamental. Shows
wealth of deceased woman.
Show the PROTHESIS (the display of the corpse on a ceremonial couch
surrounded by mourners tearing their hair and singing laments). Also shows
EKPHORA (the procession amid mourners to the cemetery). Funerary shroud
used to cover body with once mourning is over hanging in the back. Very lively
artists obsessed with filling entire space. Triangular torso has something sticking
out of them. Clear gender distinction in relation to ritual. After they die laid on
funerary couch for 3 days ppl visit and mourn then they carry the corpse to burial
then 3 is burial itself with rituals associated including meal then a libation either milk, honey,
wine, oil, can also do this on an altar as an offering to the gods. Amphoras common for female
barriers since it relates to household matters, storage of grain and olive oil and carrying water
Whereas kraters are for men since they relate to the symposium a social gathering for men,
male competition and solidarity.
2 Geometric Krater, from Attica, attrib. Hirschfeld Workshop
c. 750 BCE (72cm) Metropolitan Mus. NY
Opens up to large opening. Kraters are mixing bowls, most of the time wine is being mixed with
water and used in a symposium. Stick-like silhoutte figures with triangular torsos and one
eye. Charioteers are hidden behind shields, horses show all their legs.
(top) Ritual Mourning Prothesis
Male deceased with visiting mourners to perform ritual mourning.
(bottom) Military Procession
Funeral Games (?)“Dipylon Shields” Horses. Guys leading horse, men with swords on
their sides. Chariot caries the deceased with entire couch. Scene draws attention to the dead in
his capacity as a warrior, accentuating a key role by which he and his social counterparts
asserted their claim to virtue, service to the statue, and aristocratic identity.
Geometric Oinochoe from the Athenian Agora c. 730 BCE (23cm)
Oinochoe is for pouring. Referring to pic tradition of Homer. Small jug.
In main frieze we see charioteers fighting. A checkered square shield reference to
mythical Siamese twins (Melionides) who also fought Heracles. Very unusual. On
the neck are shoulders with a shield; unpractical might refer to sword shown top
right. Two joined warriors mount a chariot reference Moliones, Siamese twins of
whom both Homer and Hesoid speak.
Geometric Krater from Thebes c. 730 BCE,
Theseus and Ariadne (?)
Paris and Helen (?)
Giant oared ship fully manned. On the side there is a man on land just about to step up onto the
ship behind him is a woman. Perhaps this is the story of Paris abducting Helen from Sparta
another theory is Theseus having slayed … takes the girl and leaves.
Griffin protome from Rhodes c. 700-675 BCE
This griffin's head, which with several others decorated a large bronze
cauldron, is characteristic of the Orientalizing period. A "protome" is
a decorative element representing the head and neck of a person or
animal. Often elaborate prizes for athletic games. Created in an s shaped
design almost no straight lines except for handle on top and ears.
3 “Chigi Vase” Protocorinthian Olpe c. 650 BC
Protocorinthian means Corinthian style proto means before leading up to that phase.
Clay colour is yellow. Athenian vases are more orange, one way to know were vases
come from. Olpe means pouring jug probably used for wine. Has 3 registers one on
shoulder, belly and bottom. Belly register shows a procession of chariot and horsemen
and a lion hunt on one side (near eastern motif), bottom register we see youths crouching and
moving along with dogs most likely a hunting scene carrying several dead hare. Heracles and
the Nemea lion. Design is stylized. Has a lot to do with asserting power.
Hoplite Phalanx, from top of Chigi Vase
Hoplite Phalanx, Hoplites were Greek foot solders they were very brave fighting
close contact. They were Aristocrats because they had to afford their own bronze
armour. Usually round big shield, sword, spear, and protective gear from head to toe. These
shields are also artistic devices. Soldiers come from both sides were they meet can show
outside and inside of shield. Emblems were suppose to protect you shield devices, like a hawk,
eagle, snake and gorgon face (reference to medusa). Is supposed to scare away evil as long as
you’re on the inside of the shield your protected. Greeks fight Greeks. There is a boy playing
pipes strapped to his mouth, Yellow red and white used.
“Eleusis Amphora” Protoattic Amphora 650 BCE, Eleusis
Free hand design without geometric patterning. Mythological narrative
from the Odyssey of Odysseus stabbing Cyclopes Polyphemos with a
spear blinding him. Odysseus here is holding a wine cup, strange cuz
drinking occurred earlier, this detail is meant to give us entire
story. This was also a funerary vase used as an urn that contained remains.
Odysseus was known as the cunning, resourceful hero. He gets Cyclopes drunk and
then his men make a stake to stab him in the eye. Depicts gorgons in pursuit of
Perseus in the main frieze on the body, he’s just decapitated Medusa. Shoulder shows animal
combat w boar against lion. Burial jar for a child.
“Mykonos Pithos” Relief Amphora c. 650 BCE
Relief, large cinerary urn made from terracotta. Incidents from capture of Troy. Neck
shows the Trojan horse on wheels, embossed. Greek soldiers marching along side.
Windows in horse show hidden soldiers handing down swords, shields or helmets . The
body depicts what probably happened afterwards like a struggle of a Greek soldier with a Trojan
woman or child being harassed etc. A child is being held by the legs while the mother begs for
mercy. Another shows child being impaled. Coping method to show gruesome scenes on
funerary vase. Has to do with theme of death, heroic epic war story death.
4 (left) Figurine from Delphi 625 BCE Bronze (19 cm) (right)
“Lady of Auxerre” 640 BCE limestone (65cm), Louvre
Mans left leg edges forward, arms by sides, fists clenched
follows Egyptian convention. Man has no ears. Iconic Hairstyle
frames face and is similar in both. Woman is fully clothed man is
almost fully nude. Named after city in France, where she was first
exhibited. She wears a long dress, skirt is decorated w
incised squares that were originally painted. A cloak covers her shoulders. Large feet under
shapeless skirt. Man is more proportioned both have a belt and a synch waist. Woman is larger
than man. Her hands are very big her torso and lower body is dominated by form of the dress.
Bets found in burials probably status symbol. Found traces of paint. Gesture though to signify
adoration by female figure. Woman has Egyptian aspects.
“The Nikandre Statue” from Delos c. 640 BCE Naxian Marble (Athens
Natl. Museum) Made by Aristion of Paros.
Inscription runs along the left side of her dress. "Nikandre dedicated
me to the far-shooter of arrows, the excellent daughter of Deinodikes of
Naxos, the sister of Deinomenes, the wife of Phraxos." Inscription is
significant because she relates herself to her male family members.
Found near the Temple of Artemis, so we think this was a dedication to the goddess Artemis
Probably came from a very wealthy aristocratic family. Named after person who dedicated life-
sized statue. Daedalic style w triangular face, wig like hair, and a frontal and rigid pose.
“New York Kouros” (Attic) c. 600 BCE Marble (1.95m)
Beardless Youth, Aristocratic/Athlete. A kouros is a statue of a standing nude youth that did not
represent any one individual youth but the idea of youth. Used in Archaic Greece as both a
dedication to the gods in sanctuaries and as a grave monument (for aristocrats), the standard
kouros stood with his left foot forward (signifies movement and helps w balance), arms at his
5 sides, looking straight ahead. Bulging eyes, iris painted on. Hairstyle is still long and arranged in
nice beads wearing a diadem shown on the back means he’s an athlete. Detail of anatomy
drawn on more than modeled. No belt from 7 century. Wears only a neckband. Kouroi (plural)
were offerings to the gods in sanctuaries or in cemeteries as markers over the dead. At first they
were though to represent Apollo. Cost was expensive stood as symbol of aristocratic excellence
“Berlin Kore” (Attic) c. 570 BCE Marble
Sculptor was interested in patterning of her dress. Holding a
pomegranate in her right hand like many Horai figures do.
Related to Persephone who ate 6 seeds had to stay during the
winter in the underground for 6 months while the other 6 was spent
above in the spring. Relates to Greek maidens who died before
they could get married. When a girl comes of age and dies
before marriage she is related to Persephone. Awkward smile,
archaic smile sign of vitality. Bulging eyes like NY Kouros. Kore was one of the
two major types of sculpture in the 6 century.
Phrasikleia, and her inscribed base, from Merenda, Attica. c. 540 BC.
Marble. Height 6 ft 1 in (1.86 m). National Museum, Athens
Inscribed Base: The Marker of Phrasikleia. Forever shall I be called
“maiden” (kore) the gods having grated me this instead of marriage.
Aristion of Paros made it. The girl wears sandals, a long, ornamented robe with a
wide belt above the hips, and on her head a crown of flowers consisting of open
lotus blossoms and lotus buds. In her right hand she holds a closed lotus
blossom before her breast, while grasping the skirt of her robe with her left hand.
Her jewellery consists of earrings, a necklace with seven pendants, and two
bracelets. She was reconstructed and painted how she was thought to
look before. Slimmer than berlin kore. Kore meant either daughter thus she died before marriage
or familiar name for Persephone thus can allude to her role in the afterlife by Hades side.
Anavysos Kouros, from Anavysos, Attica. c. 530 BC. Marble.
National Museum, Athens
Inscription on base: “Stay and mourn at the monument of dead
Kroisos who raging Ares slew as he fought in the front ranks.” Man being
represented is named Kroisos. Male version of Phrasikleia. Figures
becoming more fleshy, more fluid. Knees softer. Foot still forward and hands to side.
Still has archaic smile. Sculptures less interested in formulaic stance.
Mass emerges much more convincingly and actually looks sculpted. Has ornate
hair like original Kouros.
The head is more proportional to its body and the face is much more
rounded. Named after village in Attica were he was found. Sculptor
penetrated block to a greater depth and thus achieved a
greater three-dimensionality. Archaic smile attempt at vitality no
6 Kore, No. 682, from the Athenian Acropolis. c. 520 BC. Marble. Height (1.82
m). Acropolis Museum, Athens
Female. Shows fashion has changed cross-slung himation worn over crinkly chiton
becomes popular. Korai of this period often use one hand to pull the drapery
against the limbs, revealing the shapes of the body beneath.
Kore is the name given to a type of freestanding ancient Greek sculpture of the
Archaic period made of wood, terra cotta, limestone, or white marble. Female dress
depended on 3 major garments, the PEPLOS, CHITON, and the HIMATION all
cloth buttoned or pinned and arranged in different ways. Long strands of hair.
Kore, from Athenian Acropolis. c. 520 BC. Marble. Height 22 ins (55 cm).
Acropolis Museum, Athens
Costume is recognized as eastern Greek, wearing a chiton and a sash with folds. She
is meant to be pulling up her skirt, Greek sculpture always incorporating action. Has
archaic smile. Adding to the realism is the (missing) left hand grasping the left side of
her chiton in order to move forward. Drapery patterns and head shape are
characteristically east greek and the marble is Chian.
Moschophoros (Calfbearer),from Athens. c. 560 BC. Marble. (restored).
Acropolis Museum, Athens
Found in fragments on the Athenian Acropolis and has a base with an inscription stating that a
man named Rhonbos dedicated the statue to Athena in thanksgiving for his prosperity. He has
the same left-foot-forward manner as the kouros above but has a beard, which implies he is no
7 longer young. The face is drastically different from earlier Greek statues in the fact that he
appears to be smiling. Wears a thin cloak, calf offering to Athena. Beaded hairdo.
Aristodikos Kouros, from Attica. c. 500 BC. Marble (1.95 m). National Museum,
Marble. Grave marker of Aristodikos. One of the very late Kouros, more naturalistic.
Arms are detached from the sides, because of this they were delicate and arms fell off.
Musculature more delicate, not clear cut and linear anatomical details instead fully 3D.
Hairstyle has changed, gotten shorter still patterned. Archaic smile disappeared, left
foot forward indication of potential for movement. Knees appear more realistic.
“Piraeus” Apollo c.500 BCE
Life sized bronze statue. Found in shipwreck.
Not as heavy as stone since it is hollow (uses lost
wax method). Versatility of bronze medium,
hands and arms now completely broken away from its body and
preserved since durable material. Instead of left foot forward it’s the right foot and he
is holding something in front of him most likely a libation bowl and bow and arrow.
(left) The Kritios Boy, kouros attributed to the sculptor Kritios. c. 480 BC.
Marble. Height 3 ft 10 ins. Acropolis Museum, Athens (right) “Perserschutt”
(Persian Debris) 1865 albumen silver print
Boy found on the Acropolis in Athens. Shifting weight to his left one leg, right leg has
no weight thus hips the way they are. Barely any shifting of shoulder line.
“Ponderation” =related to gravity. Head and body found separately. Persians
deliberately cut heads off of sculptures. The calf bearer shown alongside. Rolled hair
over a fillet is characteristic of the severe style. Not stiff.
Head of Harmodios
The Tyrannicides. Roman copies of c. 477 BC Greek bronzes by Kritios and
Nesiotes. Marble. Height 6 ft 5 ins. National Museum, Naples.
(right) Plaster Cast Reconstruction
They (Harmodios and Aristogeiton) killed the tyrant Hipparchus, and were the
preeminent symbol of democracy to ancient Athenians. These statues were taken as
war booty by Persians during their sack of Athens. First public commemoration of
Athenian citizens allowed in the agora. They were immediately replac