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BIO120H1 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Population Ecology, Monocarpic, Sclerophyll

Course Code
James Thomson
Study Guide

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Lecture 1 4 & Readings Study Questions
Lecture 1 (30)
1. What is the difference between resources and conditions?
2. "Species have ranges of tolerance along environmental conditions"
What does this mean?
a. What are the aspects of performance (4)?
3. What are the most important factors for terrestrial plant survival? Aquatic?
a. Terrestrial animals and aquatic animals?
4. Describe in detail, the global gradients of temperature and rainfall and indicate the
seasonality gradient.
5. What is the adiabatic lapse rate and how is the adiabatic process reversible?
6. Describe the "gear train" model of atmospheric cells.
7. What is the intertropical convergence zone? How does it determine seasonality of a
8. How are prevailing wind patterns created? What are the Horse latitudes? Trade winds?
Equatorial doldrums? Roaring 40s?
9. How would an albatross have adapted to living in the Roaring 40s?
10. What sets the boundaries for biomes? How is latitude related to this (in some cases)?
11. How do temperature and precipitation contribute to climate patchiness on basic
latitudinal belts?
12. Where do the driest deserts occur? Why?
13. Describe how rain shadows occur.
14. Describe an elevational gradient. How do they occur?
Introduction to the Basic Drivers of Climate
15. What is the difference between climate and weather?
16. How does differential heating affect climate? Discuss precipitation patters, global winds,
ocean circulation.
17. How does the rotation of the Earth affect ocean currents? Deeper currents?
18. How do wind and ocean current relate to heat and moisture?
19. How can microclimates be created? How does it affect an area's ecology?
20. Describe El-Nino Southern Oscillation. How and where does it affect terrestrial
ecosystems? How does it affect marine life?
Terrestrial Biomes
21. What is a biome?
22. How did the Raunkiaer Classification System work?
23. Describe the seasonal climate in Tropical Forest Biomes. Productivity. Diversity.
a. How are sub-biomes distinguished?
24. Describe the seasonal climates of Savannas. Productivity.
a. How are sub-biomes distinguished?

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b. What is the role of fires in savannas?
25. Describe the seasonal climates of Deserts. Productivity. Diversity. Dominant plant.
a. In what range of latitudes are these biomes located?
b. How are sub-biomes distinguished?
26. Describe the seasonal climates of Grasslands. Precipitation. Vegetation.
a. Where are they located?
b. How is it an "intermediate" biome?
c. What are the 3 major selective forces that dominate the evolution of plant traits?
i. Give some examples of these traits.
27. Describe the seasonal climates of Temperature Deciduous Forests. Biodiversity (of
plants AND animals).
28. Describe the seasonal climates of Mediterranean Climate Biome. Productivity.
a. Where are they located?
b. How can plants thrive in this climate?
c. What role do fires play?
29. Describe the seasonal climates of Northern Coniferous Forests. Productivity.
a. What are some causes for the slow turnover rate of plant matter?
30. Describe the seasonal climates of the Tundra. Productivity.
a. Where is it located?
b. Dominant plants?
c. Describe the canopy morphology. Why is this ideal for the conditions in the
d. How are nutrients retained in this environment?
Lecture 2 (23)
1. How are some species' geographical ranges limited by habitat? Behavioral choices?
Other animals?
2. How is heat balanced by an organism's body? (5)
a. How is SA:V ratio related to maintaining heat balance?
3. What is Bergmann's rule? Allen's rule?
4. When would maximizing SA:V ratio be best? Minimizing?
5. What are some methods of insulation?
6. How can vascularization enhance cooling? Countercurrent circulation? Evaporation?
a. Describe the evaporation habits of dogs, elephants, and kangaroos.
Physiological Ecology
7. What is physiological ecology?
Physiological Optima and Critical Limits
8. What do critical limits help define? What is a performance curve and where do the
critical limits appear on the performance curve? Describe and interpret the shape of a
performance curve.
9. What is the difference between eurythermal and stenothermal organisms?
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