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BCH210H1- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 115 pages long!)


Department
Biochemistry
Course Code
BCH210H1
Professor
Stavroula Andreopoulos
Study Guide
Final

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UTSG
BCH210H1
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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BCH210 Tutorial #6:
Question:
GpA has transmembrane helixes, but chou fasman predicts its beta strands. This is because of the large
hdophoi esidues i GpA, ad this is’t pedited i the hou fasa. Also eause hou fasa
ol pedits solule poteis, the do’t appl to embrane proteins. The alpha helix structure shields
polar atoms of the backbone. High hydrophobicity of amino acids in GpA overcomes the chou fasman
propensities.
Transmembrane:
The membrane is 30A thick / each AA is 1.5A = 20AA. They are linear because it minimizes membrane
disruption. The polar groups of the backbone are shielded in H-bonding.
The oceans are pink because they are very salty, so the high salt decreases the O2 concentration in the
water, and one bacterium that grow in these conditions produce bacteriorhodopsin which makes it pink.
The retinal group in this molecule is covalently linked, and the retinal group can give off colours. The
bacteria are heterobacteria.
Bacterio:
Its attached via a Schiff base.
Retinal:
The Lysine residue number is 216, and its attached to the retinal group via a sheet and its trans. When a
photon hits the molecule, it undergoes a conformational change turning it from trans into cis. One of the
consequences of this change is the pka of the sheet. When its cis, the N can now very easily give up the
H.
Bacterio:
The N grabs a H from Asp-96 and goes back to trans, and the Asp-96 takes a H from the cytosol to satisfy
Asp96.
Question:
C.
Question:
The utat ould’t e futioal eause the As side hais aot e protonated/deprotonated
because the side chain is O=C-NH2. If its changed to Glu, it would probably work, the side chains are the
same, the backbone is just 1 CH2 longer.
Beta:
It’s a pola/opola i eta sheet eause the opola ill fae the eae, polar will face inside.
Its 1 and 1 because the rise of a beta strand is 2 residues. Inside the barrel is polar, outside is nonpolar.
The barrels are channels.
Beta:
The double membrane organelles are the mitochondria and chloroplasts. The mitochondria and
chloroplasts are of bacteria origin. In bacteria,, beta barrels are found in the outer membrane.
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Question;
E, membrane proteins can diffuse freely but they have boundaries with the cytoskeleton
Question:
B, it’s a hdopohi stutue.
We only need 11 AAs in beta strands because betca sheets have a rise of 3A.
Passive:
Passive diffusion is where the molecules can freely diffuse through the membrane. Facilitated diffusion
is where they need a membrane transport protein to facilitate this diffusion from high concentration to
low concentration. In facilitated diffusion, it levels off because there is only so many membrane
proteins, they become saturated.
Question:
A.
Potassium:
Carbonyl O (C=O) of peptide backbone and the Side chain OH of Thr.
Ion:
The K is coordinated very tightly between the carbonyl groups. Its more energetically unfavourable for
deslvate Na+.
Gating:
They can accommodate large changes because they gave Gly in the hinge regions allowing for large
changes whch opens the channel.
Question:
C.
B2:
TM #6 moves.
cAMP:
A stiulato ids to the eepto ad the GDP is atiates, it dissoiates the tasdue. If e do’t
at this patha o, e a stop it ad phosphodiestease eaks do AMP ad it fos 5’ AMP.
Question:
C.
Question:
True, False, False.
Question:
B.
Enzymes:
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